Flashcards in Disorders of Granulocyte/Monocyte Number Deck (21):
Monocytes are usually in the bloodstream for ______ days before moving into tissue.
Describe a monocyte.
Kidney-shaped nucleus, larger than RBCs
Neurophils are in the bone marrow for _____ until being released in the blood, where it resides for ______.
10 - 14 days; 6 hours
Neutropenia is _______.
a decrease in the absolute neutrophil count (including bands and segmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes), below accepted norms for age and other considerations
What is the range of normal for absolute neutrophil count?
1,000 - 3,000 / uL
What is the highest-risk stratification of neutropenia?
The most common cause of neutropenia is ________.
There are three mechanisms of secondary neutropenia causes: _________.
Immune (penicillin--acute); toxic (phenothiazine--chronic); and hypersensitivity (dilantin, phenobarbital--chronic)
What is the mechanism of alloimmune neutropenia?
Maternal antibodies cross-react with neonatal neutrophils, resulting in netropeniac infants that resolves 3-4 months after birth.
What three genetic situations can result in neutropenia?
Apoptosis of myeloid precursors associated with elastase (ELA-2), HAX-1, or other genes; rarely associated with G-CSF receptor defects
What are aphthous ulcers?
List some of the viruses that can cause neutropenia.
EBV, HIV, CMV, hepatitis, measles, and varicella
What is Kostmann syndrome?
Hereditary defect of neutrophil production (apoptosis of myelocyte precursors, defects in G-CSF gene)
Autoimmune neutropenia, in which antibodies attack neutrophils, is found in _____.
systemic lupus erythematosus
How should neutropenia be treated?
Identify the source of infection (if fever is present) and treat with antibiotics; G-CSF can be given; remove toxins or drugs that might be causing neutropenia
What stages are most of the granulocytes in, in terms of the body's total reservoir?
Metamyelocyte, bands, and segmented
There are two types of neutropenia: _______.
I). that in which bone marrow reserves are depleted (can be primary or secondary), and II). that in which bone marrow reserves are normal (usually secondary)
Cyclic neutropenia is _______, while Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is ______.
autosomal dominant; autosomal recessive
"Left-shift" refers to an increase in _______.
bands and segmented neutrophils
List some of the categories of neutrophilia.
Increased production, increased release from marrow, reduced margination, and reduced egress from circulation