DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis - Part 1 Deck (36):
1

Genes three critical characteristics:

1. must carry information from one generation to the next
2. must be able to put the information that they carry to work to produce the traits of the organism
3. must be a mechanism to easily copy the gene

2

Chemical analysis shows that a chromosome is composed of:

Nucleic acid and protein

3

Who discovered the structure of DNA:

James Watson & Francis Crick

4

DNA stands for:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

5

DNA molecules consist of "building blocks" called:

Nucleotides

6

Nucleotides consist of:

A phosphate group
A 5-carbon sugar
A nitrogen base

7

The 5-carbon sugar found in nucleotides is called:

Deoxyribose

8

The four nitrogen bases found in DNA are:

Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)

9

What nitrogen base is only found in RNA:

Uracil

10

Purines:

Double ring structures

11

Pyrimidines:

Single ring structures

12

What nitrogen bases are purines:

Adenine and guanine

13

What nitrogen bases are pyrimidines:

Cytosine and thymine

14

The backbone of a DNA chain is formed by altering...

Sugar and phosphate groups

15

What sticks out sideways from the DNA chain:

Nitrogen bases

16

Chargaff's rule (guanine and cytosine):

The amount of guanine and cytosine bases are equal in any sample of DNA

17

Chargaff's rule (adenine and thymine):

The amount of adenine and thymine are equal in any sample of DNA

18

Process that Rosalind Franklin used:

X-ray diffraction

19

The x-ray diffractions showed that the strands of DNA were:

Twisted around eachother in a shape known as a helix

20

The x-ray diffractions suggested that there were how many strands in the DNA structure:

Two

21

The x-ray diffractions showed that the nitrogen bases were:

At the center of the molecule

22

The DNA molecule structure is described as:

A double helix, or a spiral of two strands wound around eachother

23

A double helix looks like:

A twisted latter

24

The sides of the double helix "latter" are formed by:

Sugar and phosphate

25

The rungs of the double helix "latter" are formed by:

Two nitrogen bases that pair together across the center of the helix

26

The strands from the DNA molecule are joined by:

Weak hydrogen bonds

27

The hydrogen bonds joining strands form only between what base pairs:

Adenine is always paired with thymine
Guanine is always paired with cytosine

28

A only = T and G only = C are called:

Complimentary base pairs

29

The two sides of the ladder are made up of alternating molecules of...

Sugar and phosphate

30

The runs of the ladder of the DNA molecule are formed by the...

Nitrogen bases

31

How many bases form each rung of a DNA molecule?

Two

32

The paired bases meet across the helix and are joined together by what bonds?

Hydrogen

33

Adenine always pairs with...

Thymine

34

How many bonds form between adenine and thymine?

Two

35

Guanine always pairs with...

Cytosine

36

How many bonds form between guanine and cytosine?

Three