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Flashcards in Photosynthesis ALL Deck (100):
1

What molecule is needed to begin the Calvin cycle?

Carbon dioxide

2

Which molecules provide energy to power the Calvin cycle?

ATP and NADPH

3

How many molecules of PGAL are needed to form glucose?

2

4

How many turns of the Calvin cycle are required to form one glucose molecule?

2

5

Why is the Calvin cycle also known as the "dark" reactions?

It can be performed in the dark

6

Carbon dioxide ultimately ends up being fixed into a

Glucose molecule

7

What is carbon fixation

Combination of carbon and RUBP

8

Where does Calvin cycle take place

Stroma of chloroplast

9

Organism that can make its own food

Autotroph

10

Organism that cannot make its own food

Heterotrpoh

11

Energy enters the ecosystem int the form of

Light

12

What is the process of converting the energy from the sun into chemical energy int he form of molecules of glucose

Photosynthesis

13

Two processes that require the use of ATP

DNA synthesis
Spindle forming during DNA replication

14

The energy-carrying molecule of the cell that is very energy poor

ADP

15

Carbon dioxide is required for photosynthesis - how does plant get it?

Through the stomata

16

Water is required for photosynthesis - how does the plant get it?

Through the roots

17

Name given to the substances that absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect other wavelengths of light?

Pigments

18

In what part of the cell does photosynthesis occur?

Chromoplasts

19

Name given to the green pigment that is required for photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

20

The waxy covering that helps prevent water loss from a leaf

Cuticle

21

Pores found on the underside of leaves

Stoma

22

The layer of cells in a leaf that serves as the primary photosynthetic layer of the leaf

Pallisade

23

Cells found on either side of the stomata that regulate the opening and closing of the stomata

Guard cells

24

Tubes in the plant that carry water upward toward the leaves

Xylem

25

Tubes in the plant that carry food out of the leaves

Phloem

26

Name of the flattened sacs found inside the chloroplast that contain the chlorophyll for photosynthesis

Chromoplasts

27

The dense liquid found inside the chloroplast

Thylakoids

28

Equation for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

29

During photosystem II what is split into oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electron

H20

30

ATP synthase is a protein that pumps

Hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane

31

The electron transport chain takes place in the

Thylakoid membrane

32

The electron transport chain makes up the

Light dependent reactions of photosynthesis

33

How does oxygen leave the leaf

Through the stomata on the underneath of the leaf

34

Where are sugars made

In chloroplasts

35

Light energy is converted to chemical energy

Photosynthesis

36

Plants produce what two things in photosynthesis

Oxygen and glucose

37

What is ATP

An energy source for both plants and animals

38

Photosynthesis takes what three things to create energy

Carbon dioxide, water, and energy

39

During photosynthesis what is used to produce molecules of glucose

Energy from the sun

40

What does ATP stand for

Adenine tri phosphate

41

What does ADP stand for

Adenine di phosphate

42

What is the role of ATP

Main energy currency of the cell

43

What is the role of ADP

An energy currency of the cell but less energy filled than ATP

44

How many phosphate groups are in ADP

2

45

How many phosphate groups are in ATP?

2

46

What is the significance of the third phosphate of ATP

To store excess energy

47

Three parts of ADP/ATP molecule

Adenine, ribose, phosphate

48

How does ATP become ADP

One of the phosphate groups breaks off

49

How does chlorophyll make a plant look green

Chlorophylls capture red and blue lights and reflect green wavelengths

50

Is oxygen requires for photosynthesis

No

51

Is photosynthesis the process of trapping the sun's energy in order to make molecules of glucose

Yes

52

Is carbon dioxide produced during photosynthesis

No

53

Are all parts of the plant capable of carrying out photosynthesis

No

54

Are the primary photosynthetic cells of a leaf the spongy cells

No

55

Life on earth is dependent on photosynthesis for what two things

Glucose and oxygen

56

Why do autotrophs depend on heterotrophs

For producing carbon dioxide

57

Any substance that absorbs light is called a

Pigment

58

What layer of the leaf prevents water loss

Cuticle

59

Why is the cuticle necessary

Protects leaf

60

What layer of the cell is the primary photosynthetic layer of the cell

Pallisade

61

Name of middle portion of the cell

Mesophyll

62

In what part of the cell does photosynthesis occur

Chromoplasts

63

In what part of the chromoplasts does photosynthesis happen

The thylakoids

64

Large stacks of thylakoids are called

Grana

65

The dense liquid in the thylakoids is called

The stroma

66

Photosystem:

A collection of chlorophyll molecules embedded into the thylakoid membrane

67

Once the energy of the sun gets absorbed by the chlorophylls the electrons become

Excited

68

After the electrons are excited in the thylakoids are passed to

An electron transport chain

69

How does photosystem II replace the electrons that were lost because they were excited due to the sun

A water molecule splits up and the electrons replace those lost

70

What happens to the oxygen from the water molecule split in photosystem II

They exit through the stomata

71

The electrons energized in photosystem II move from there to photosystem I through what

The electron transport chain

72

When the water breaks to replace electrons lost in photosystem II during light-dependent reactions what is it split into

2 electrons, 2 H+ ions, 1 oxygen ion

73

Do both photosystems absorb sunlight during light-dependent reactions

Yes

74

Why does photosystem I absorb energy from the sun

To re-energize the electrons

75

Where do the electrons go after photosystem I

NADP+

76

How does NADP+ become NADPH during light-dependent reactions

Joins with the two electrons and one H+

77

How is ATP actually formed

Hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase from an area of high concentration to low (inside thylakoid to outside)
As the hydrogen passes through it spins and with the help of the enzyme ATP synthase it creates energy - this energy turns ADP into ATP

78

When the hydrogen lost during the production of ATP comes back into the cell what happens

Comes into the thylakoid and because against concentration gradient uses energy from electron transport chain

79

Is glucose produced in light dependent reactions

No

80

What is the purpose of the light dependent reactions

To produce ATP and NADPH

81

What are the two energy storage molecules that provide energy to make sugar

ATP and NADPH

82

In which organelle does photosynthesis take place

Chloroplasts

83

During what process does carbon dioxide turn into glucose

Carbon fixation

84

What pigment absorbs most colors and reflects green

Chlorophyll

85

What color is chlorophyll a

Blue green

86

What color is chlorophyll b

Yellow green

87

The decomposition of water into hydrogen ions and oxygen gas is called

Photolysis

88

What is the chloroplast membrane like

A double membrane

89

During what reactions is sunlight absorbed by plants and energy storage molecules are created

Light dependent reactions

90

When light contacts the thylakoid the electrons become

Excited

91

Where do the light reactions occur

In membrane of the thylakoid

92

Where do the dark reactions occur

Stroma

93

What gas is is required to make sugar

Carbon dioxide

94

During light reactions what gas is produced

Oxygen

95

What part of the plant contains chloroplasts

Leaf

96

Name of stacks of thylakoids

Grana

97

Factors which can affect rates of photosynthesis

Temperature, light intensity, availability of water

98

With the help of ATP and NADPH PGA will turn into

PGAL

99

Why is ATP becoming ADP important

The removal of the phosphate group releases energy so that the cell can use it for cellular activities

100

Difference between ADP and ATP

ATP is energy rich and ADP is energy poor