DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Biology 2015-2016 > DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 2 Deck (16):
1

A necessary property of genetic material is that it be able to...

Carry information

2

The information in a DNA molecule is carried in the...

Sequence of bases

3

The chromosome is composed of...

DNA and proteins

4

The DNA is wrapped tightly around proteins called...

Histones

5

Together, the DNA and histone molecules form a beadlike structure called a...

Nucleosome

6

Nucleosomes seem to be able to... into the tiny space available in the cell nucleus

Fold enormous lengths of DNA

7

The structure of DNA allows it to be easily copied or...

Replicated

8

Because each strand of the double helix in a DNA molecule can be used to make the other strand, the strands are said to be...

Complimentary

9

Replication definition:

The process in which a DNA molecule builds an exact duplicate of itself

10

Step one of replication

Separation of the two DNA strands, the hydrogen bonds are broken between the bases and the parental strand now serves as a template.

11

Step two of replication

New nucleotides are inserted along both sides. As the molecule "unzips", each nitrogen base pairs with its complement to form a new strand

12

Step three of replication

The nucleotides are connected to form the sugar-phosphate backbones of the new strands. Hydrogen bonds are formed to link the two complementary bases together. Covalent bonds are formed between the sugars and the phosphates to join the nucleotides together.

13

Replication starts at sites called...

Origins of replication

14

Origins of replication are...

Short stretches of DNA that have a specific sequence of nucleotides

15

When proteins that initiate DNA replication recognize the nucleotides at the origins of replication they...

Separate the two strands and open up a replication bubble

16

Replication fork definition:

A "y" shaped region at the end of each replication bubble where the strands of DNA are elongated