DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 5 Flashcards Preview

Biology 2015-2016 > DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis - Part 5 Deck (26):
1

A gene on the DNA molecule that is copied is called

RNA

2

The copy of the instructions is sent to the...

Ribosomes in the cytoplasm

3

What does RNA basically do:

RNA carries the messages from the DNA (in the nucleus) to the ribosomes (in the cytoplasm)

4

What does RNA tell the ribosomes:

Which proteins to make and how to make them

5

Messenger RNA (mRNA) does what:

Travels from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (ribosomes) with the instructions for making proteins
Basically the messenger between DNA and the ribosomes

6

Proteins are made in the... in the cytoplasm

Ribosomes

7

The instructions in RNA are carried in the form of...

Codons

8

The first codon in RNA is...

The start codon

9

RNA is made up of...

The start codon, the stop codon, and a sequence of nucleotides (which dictates the sequence of amino acids)

10

Transfer RNA (tRNA):

Reads the message carried by mRNA and gathers the right amino acids for making that protein

11

Transfer RNA transfers amino acids from the cytoplasm pool of amino acids to a...

Ribosome

12

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is found in the...

Ribosome

13

Ribosomal RNA is used to bind the mRNA and the...

tRNA to the ribosome

14

Basically what does ribosomal RNA do:

Keeps mRNA in focus and gives tRNA a chance to read it and process it

15

Transcription of RNA:

The process of forming a strand of RNA from a strand of DNA

16

The process of RNA transcription occurs in the...

Nucleus

17

RNA polymerase:

An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction in the transcription of RNA

18

The purpose of transcription of RNA is simply to...

Copy one gene from the DNA molecule

19

Promote in RNA transcription:

A DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription

20

Terminator in transcription of RNA:

The DNA sequence that signals the end of transcription

21

First step of transcription of RNA:

RNA polymerase binds to a site on the DNA molecule called the promoter

22

RNA polymerase role in transcription of RNA:

Separates the DNA strands

23

Step two of transcription of RNA:

New nucleotides are added according to base pairing rule

24

Base pairing in transcription of RNA:

Adenine with uracil
Cytosine with guanine

25

Transcription of RNA does its thing until the end when the... is reached

Transcription

26

The purpose of transcription is...

To copy small portions of the DNA molecule to be sent to the ribosome as the instructions for protein synthesis