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Biology 2015-2016 > Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (42):
1

Organic compounds

Compounds that have carbon bonded together to other atoms and determine structure/function of living things

2

Inorganic compounds

Compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen together

3

Six organic compounds that are found in all living things

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur

4

Monomer

Building blocks (units)

5

Polymer

A larger molecule made of monomers

6

Four categories of organic compounds

Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acids

7

Another name for organic compounds

Macromolecules

8

Monosaccharides

Monomers of simple ring sugars - glucose and fructose

9

Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides combined - sucrose and lactose

10

Polysaccharides

Polymers of monosaccharides, starch (plant energy storage) and glycogen (animal energy storage)

11

Carbohydrates - cellulose

Glucose bonded to form fibers
Composes cell walls in plants
Not easily digested

12

Carbohydrates - chitin

Polymer of glucose
Makes up exoskeletons of insects and arthropods

13

What are cellulose and chitin

Carbohydrates or polysaccharides as structural molecules

14

Carbon - hydrogen - oxygen ratio

1:2:1

15

Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic

Hydrophobic

16

How are phospholipids a lipid

Make sure that the cell cannot disintegrate in water

17

Uses of lipids

Used for insulation
Used as a wax
Used as a phospholipid
Used as a steroid

18

How is fat a lipid

Use it to store excess energy

19

How is wax a lipid

Plants have the cuticle to keep water in because hydrophobic

20

What are lipids made of

Glycerol and fatty acids

21

Saturated fats in lipids

Contain no double bonds
Are solid at room temperature

22

Unsaturated fats in lipids

Contain double bonds
Are liquid at room temperature

23

Is butter saturated or unsaturated

Saturated

24

Is olive oil saturated or unsaturated

Unsaturated

25

Polymers are made of what

Amino acids

26

The amino acids in polymers are joined by what

Peptide bonds

27

What are the monomers of proteins

Amino acids

28

What are nucleic acids and what are they made of

Are polymers that are made of nucleotides
Contain genetic information

29

What is found within DNA, RNA, and ATP

Nucleic acids

30

Each nucleotide consists of what

A sugar
A phosphate
A nitrogen base

31

Two important parts of chemical reactions

Reactants - the chemical that participates in a chemical reaction
Products - the substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction

32

What are enzymes

Proteins that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction

33

How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions

By decreasing the amount of activation energy required for a reaction

34

What is activation energy

Energy that chemicals need to begin a reaction

35

What is the substrate of an enzyme

A molecule that attaches to the enzyme's active site

36

What is the Enzyme-Substrate connection like

A lock and key
They are specific to each other - and only each other

37

Once the substrate and enzyme bond it becomes

The enzyme-substrate complex

38

What happens once the enzyme-substrate complex is made

The enzyme changes its shape slightly to create a more secure bond and then the chemical reaction occurs

39

After the chemical reaction following the production of the enzyme-substrate complex what happens

The product (former substrate) is released from the enzyme

40

What happens to the enzyme after the breaking of the enzyme-substrate complex

It can carry out the same chemical reaction again and again and again

41

Factors that affect enzymes

Ph and temperature

42

Example of enzyme not being able to function

Some people die of fevers not because of high temperatures but because their enzymes cannot function when the temperature gets too high