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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (42)
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1

Organic compounds

Compounds that have carbon bonded together to other atoms and determine structure/function of living things

2

Inorganic compounds

Compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen together

3

Six organic compounds that are found in all living things

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur

4

Monomer

Building blocks (units)

5

Polymer

A larger molecule made of monomers

6

Four categories of organic compounds

Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acids

7

Another name for organic compounds

Macromolecules

8

Monosaccharides

Monomers of simple ring sugars - glucose and fructose

9

Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides combined - sucrose and lactose

10

Polysaccharides

Polymers of monosaccharides, starch (plant energy storage) and glycogen (animal energy storage)

11

Carbohydrates - cellulose

Glucose bonded to form fibers
Composes cell walls in plants
Not easily digested

12

Carbohydrates - chitin

Polymer of glucose
Makes up exoskeletons of insects and arthropods

13

What are cellulose and chitin

Carbohydrates or polysaccharides as structural molecules

14

Carbon - hydrogen - oxygen ratio

1:2:1

15

Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic

Hydrophobic

16

How are phospholipids a lipid

Make sure that the cell cannot disintegrate in water

17

Uses of lipids

Used for insulation
Used as a wax
Used as a phospholipid
Used as a steroid

18

How is fat a lipid

Use it to store excess energy

19

How is wax a lipid

Plants have the cuticle to keep water in because hydrophobic

20

What are lipids made of

Glycerol and fatty acids

21

Saturated fats in lipids

Contain no double bonds
Are solid at room temperature

22

Unsaturated fats in lipids

Contain double bonds
Are liquid at room temperature

23

Is butter saturated or unsaturated

Saturated

24

Is olive oil saturated or unsaturated

Unsaturated

25

Polymers are made of what

Amino acids

26

The amino acids in polymers are joined by what

Peptide bonds

27

What are the monomers of proteins

Amino acids

28

What are nucleic acids and what are they made of

Are polymers that are made of nucleotides
Contain genetic information

29

What is found within DNA, RNA, and ATP

Nucleic acids

30

Each nucleotide consists of what

A sugar
A phosphate
A nitrogen base