Drugs of Abuse Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy > Drugs of Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (40):
1

3.3 Types of Tolerance

Innate
Acquired - Pharmokinetic/dynamic, learned
Cross

2

Rimonabant

Cannabinoid R inverse agonist, potential cessation aid for a lot of substances

3

Key Addiction Pathway

DA neurons from VTA go to inhibit GABA nuclei in NAc, leading to reward in ventral pallidum. Also GABA in VTA that inhibit DA. Opioid in each inhibit GABA as well. Glutamate from cortex excites GABA

4

Opiates Effect

Act to inhibit both GABA in VTA (releases DA inhibition) and NAc

5

Opioid Danger

Tolerance to desirable effects develops quickly, so users quickly require desirable effects and withdrawal avoidance, increasing risk of overdose (usually respiratory depression)

6

Salvia

Activates Kappa-opioid agonist

7

3 Kinds of Effects from Smoking and What They're From

CV: Primarily nicotine
Carcinogenic: Probably tar then enhanced by nicotine
Respiratory: Tar

8

Titration

Smokers will alter their behavior to get the exact conc of nicotine they like

9

Nicotine Effect

Acts on DA cell bodies and presynaptic terminals both to depol them and make APs more likely

10

Cocaine CV Effects

Bradycardia from vagal stimlation, then tachycardia at higher doses. Tolerance develops to CNS effect but not these, where danger lies

11

Cocaine Treatment (3)

Alpha/beta adrenergic blockers - labetolol
Calcium channel block
Diezepam for calming

12

2 Most Common Cocaine Administrations

Cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine free base (crack)

13

Cocaine Mechs

Blocks NE, DA, and 5HT (higher dose) transporters. Peripheral effects due to block of sympathetic neurons

14

Cocaine Elimination

Primarily by plasma esterases, not much excreted in urine

15

Amphetamine Treatment

Alpha1 blocker - prazosin

16

Amphetamine Tolerance

Develops to CNS effects, so move up to huge amounts until reach psychotoxic effects and become so out of it/schizo that they can't administer anymore

17

Amphetamine Mech

Taken up by NET/DAT/SERT, blocks VMAT which reloads vesicles, so MA builds up at nerve terminal and effluxes. Also inhibits MAO which breaks down toxic DA buildup products

18

Ecstasy Mech

Acute release of 5HT/action on 5HT transporter

19

Phenethylamine and Tryptamine

Scaffolds for DA/NE and 5HT, respectively. Psychadelics

20

Most Potent Cannabinoids

Delta9-THC and 11-hydroxy-Delta9-THC (metabolite) - any further metabolism inactivates

21

2/3 Clinical Uses for Cannabinoids

Anti-emetic/appetite stimulant for chemotherapy - Marinol and nabilone
Glaucoma - reduces intraocular pressure

22

Notable Feature About LSD

Exceptionally potent

23

Notable Aspect of Psychadelic Tolerance

Can develop after a few daily doses, but returns after a few drug free days. Maybe due to downreg. Also cross tolerance b/w LSD, mescaline, and psilocin

24

Psychadelic Mech

Act on 5HT GPCRs, especially partial agonism at 5HT2, probably responsible for hallucinations

25

PCP Mech

Channel blocker of NMDA glutamate Rs. These have learning/memory effects (also this might be responsible for dependence)

26

Standard Dose of Ethanol

0.5 oz = 14g

27

EtOH Distribution

Everywhere, but very water soluble so really where there's water. Easily crosses BBB

28

EtOH Elimination via Lungs

1st order, so proportional to BAC in exhalation

29

Saturation Kinetics of EtOH Metabolism

Saturated, so 0 order. Can metabolize 2/3 standard drink/hr

30

EtOH Metabolism

ADH converts to acetaldehyde, ALDH converts to acetate. Each step produces NADH, so produces a lot of reducing capacity that can damage cells

31

2 EtOH Metabolism Polymorphisms

ADH: Slow EtOH metabolism, so it lasts longer and increased risk for alcoholism
ALDH - Asian flush, can't drink

32

Alcohol Mechanisms

Not quite sure, just kinda generalized effects like GA but with very low affinity. GABAa Rs seem to be a target

33

2 Alcohol Dependence Treatment Drugs

Acamprosate - GABAa activator
Disulfiram - ALDH inhibitor, can't tolerate EtOH

34

Delirium Tremens

Severe alcohol withdrawal w/ hallucinations and delirium and shit

35

Treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

Benzodiazepines

36

3 Liver Issues w/ Alcohol

Excess reducing capacity
Acute Drug Metabolism: decreased bc enzymes being used/decreased blood flow
Chronic: faster for some drugs bc enzyme induction

37

Methanol

Converted to formaldehyde, then formate which is especially dangerous. Can cause retinal damage/blindness, among other things

38

Best Treatment of Methanol and Ethylene Glycol Poisoning

Ethanol - ADH has higher affinity for it

39

GHB

Looks like GABA, addictive as GABAb agonist (inhibits GABA neurons inhibiting DA ones in VTA)

40

Thujone

GABAa R modulator thought to be special factor in Absinthe, turns out not there.