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Flashcards in Central Control of Movement Deck (20):
1

Highest Level of Motor Control

Why? Goals to be achieved. Neocortical association areas (sensations, memories) primarily, but basal ganglia also involved

2

Middle Level of Motor Control

How, what, and when to move? Sequences/tiiming. Uses motor cortex area 4 and 6 for premotor and supplementory motor, as well as cerebellum to share same sequential pathways as before

3

Lowest Level of Motor Control

Activation of motor neurons, using cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord

4

Posterior Parietal Cortex

Areas 5 and 7, sensory input that sends info the motor

5

2 Sources of Corticospinal Tract

Primary motor cortex (2/3) and somatosensory cortex (1/3)

6

2 Parts/Functions of Reticulospinal Tract

Pontine (medial) - enhances antigravity reflexes
Medullary (lateral) - relaxes antigravity reflexes

7

Main Function of Basal Ganglia

Starting/stopping movement

8

3 Cortical Regs of Movement

Parietal cortex (5&7) do sensory then output to premotor area (6)
Prefrontal cortex does decision making/consequential input then outputs to premotor area (6)

9

Lentiform Nucleus

Putamen and globus pallidus, all together but GP is more medial

10

2 Structures Not Technically in BG but Involved in its Reg

Subthalamic nuc and substantia nigra

11

Basic Pathway of Globus Pallidus (int) to Motor Cortex

GPi has tonic inhibition of thalamus, so it can't excite motor cortex. Interruption of GPi allows thalamus to fire and excite motor cortex

12

Direct Pathway of BG Regulation of Movement

Excitatory: Cortex and Substantia nigra both stimulate putamen which inhibits GPi, releasing its inhibition

13

Indirect Pathway of BG Regulation of Movement

Inhibitory: Cortex and Substantia nigra stimulate putamen, which also inhibits GPext, which was inhibiting Subthalamic nucleus which stimulates GPi. So Inhibition of subthalamic nucleus is released, so it stimulates GPi to inhibit thalamus

14

Huntington Disease Symptoms

Hyperkinetic disorder - chorea/dementia/psychiatric disorder

15

Huntington Disease Cause

Striatum/putamen fibers going to GPe degenerate, so you get less tonic inhibition and thus hyperkineticism

16

Parkinson Disease Symptoms

Hypokinetic - rigidity, lack of expression, difficulty starting/stopping movements, and resting tremor (pill rolling, SC firing)

17

Parkinson Disease Cause

DAergic neurons from substantia nigra degenerate, and striatum/putamen activates GPext more so you get over inhibition

18

Athetosis

Slow, writhing motions

19

Ballismus

Flailing/flinging motions of extremities

20

Hemiballismus

Unilateral ballismus due to contralateral lesion in subthalamic nucleus