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Flashcards in Educational Policy Deck (28)
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What are educational policies?

Government strategies for educational instructions and changes.


What does each education system focus on?

1). Tripartite = selection.

2). Comprehensive = integration of all abilities.

3). ERA = parentocracy through marketisation.

4). New Labour = reducing previous inequalities.


What are the main issues of educational policies?

- Selection of pupils.

- Inequality in education.


When was the Butler Act introduced?



What was the Butler Act's intentions?

1). To create more meritocracy - higher chances of opportunity to succeed.

2). Everybody took the 11+ exam; this legitimised inequality.


What are the 3 types of secondary schools in the tripartite system?

1. Grammar =

- Higher standards --> more academic.
-Only pupils who passed the 11+ went here (usually m/c).

2. Secondary technical =

- Demanding subjects (science, maths, etc).
- Usually w/c.

3. Secondary modern =

- Vocational training --> ready for industrial work.
- Usually w/c.


How did the tripartite system reproduce class inequality?

It channelled 2 social classes into different schools that offered unequal opportunities to success.


How did the tripartite system affect selection of pupils?

People's were allocated according to their 11+ result, however;

- It's unfair to measure intelligence at age 11.

- m/c parents could afford materials to help with their education, therefore, m/c pupils were more likely to go to grammar schools.


How did the tripartite system legitimise inequality?

This system argued that ability was inborn (measured at age 11), this justified why w/c pupils failed.


What are 2 strengths of the Butler Act?

1). Introduction of free milk =

Hygiene standards amongst children rose.

2) Introduction of free school meals =

'In loco parentis' --> provided equal opportunity for w/c families (spend less money), but it increased stigma.


What are 2 limitations of the Butler Act?

1. Inequality =

Only m/c pupils went to grammar schools so this created a self-fulfilling prophecy in w/c pupils.

2. Division of labour =

As pupils were taught specific skills in specific subjects, they were only able to work in specific jobs.


When was the comprehensive system introduced?



Who introduced the comprehensive system?



What is a comprehensive school?

A school that takes every child of secondary age within their specific catchment area.

- ANY ability.


What did comprehensive schools abolish from the Butler Act?

- 11+ exams.

- The tripartite system.


What is the aim of the comprehensive circular?

1. To stop inequality in the tripartite system.

2. Improve division of labour.

3. Make education more meritocratic.


How many grammar schools didn't accept the comprehensive circular?

164 --> still remain in the UK today.


What did the comprehensive system introduce to education?

- Setting =

Ability grouping by subject.

- Streaming =

Ability grouping in all subjects.


How do functionalists evaluate the comprehensive system?

1. Meritocracy =

Gives pupils longer to develop skills as they aren't selected at age 11.

2. Social solidarity =

All social classes are brought together, promoting integration.


How do Marxist's criticise the comprehensive system?

1. Myth of meritocracy =

Reproduced inequality through setting and streaming (high set = m/c), they made it look like everyone has equal opportunity.


What is marketisation in education?

Definition =

Introducing market forces of consumer choice and competition into state-run schools.

1. Creating an 'education market'.

2. Schools attract consumers (parents) by competing in the market, like a business.


How do marketisation policies link to the New Right perspective?

Make schools into a market promoting consumer choice, reducing state control, to increase competition and standards --> all what New Right love.


When was the ERA introduced?



Who introduced the ERA?



What did the ERA focus on?


- Widening choice within the education system.

- More competition to create a 'market'.


How did the ERA focus on parentocracy?

Their policies shift power to parents as they control who attends the school, creating more choice and improving standards.


What policies did ERA introduce that reflects parentocracy?

1). League tables =

Exam results available online for parents to view (made schools more accountable to consumers)

2). Formula funding =

Money allocated to schools per pupil (competition would drive up standards).


More frequent inspections of schools (increases standards and makes school accountable for consumers).

4). National curriculum =

Everyone studies the same subjects (meets the needs of the community - basic requirements for work).


How did ERA reproduce inequality?

1). League tables =

Less successful schools end up with lower achieving pupils (w/c).

2). Formula funding =

Better schools get more money, therefore, raising standards even more.

3). Parental choice =

Gerwirtz --> m/c parents with capital choose the best schools, w/c parents settle with the nearest school.

4). Myth of parentocracy =

It's a myth as some parents have a better opportunity to choose better schools.