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Flashcards in Marxism Deck (22)
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What is the Marxist view?

Conflict =

- Society is based on class division and exploitation, and the ruling-class reproduce and justify this class inequality.


Marxists identify 2 main functions of education...

Education serves the needs of capitalism by;

1). Reproducing inequality = failing generations of w/c pupils.

2). Legitimising inequality = ideologies stop people questioning their exploitation.


Who are the 3 Marxist theorists?

1). Althusser.

2). Bowls and Gintis.

3). Willis.


What does Althusser say ISA is?

Capitalists maintain power as they control the state, the state controls peoples ideas, values and beliefs --> which keeps the capitalists in power.


How does Althusser say education reproduces class inequality?

Through ISA:

- Fails generations of w/c pupils so they end up with the same jobs as their parents --> ultimately serving the needs of capitalism.


How does Althusser say education legitimated inequality?

Through ISA:

- Production of ideologies that persuade workers that inequality is inevitable --> failure is a result of the individual, not capitalism.


What does Bowles and Gintis say the role of education is?

Similar to Althusser:

- To reproduce an obedient workforce that will accept inequality as inevitable and fair --> education plants these ideas in their minds.


What personality traits does capitalism require, according to Bowles and Gintis?

Submissive and compliant in order for workers to accept hard work, low pay and authority (server capitalism).


What is the correspondence principle, according to Bowles and Gintis?

Schools mirror work --> creating workers that will serve capitalism.


How do Bowles and Gintis say schools 'mirror' the workforce?

1). Alienation =

Lack of control in school and work.

2). Hierarchy of authority =

Accept orders from teachers and managers.

3). Rewards =

Grades for good work (school) and pay or promotion (work).


What is the 'hidden curriculum', according to Bowles and Gintis?

The 'lessons' of the correspondence principle are taught indirectly in school.

- These are gradually accepted as the normal way to think.


How is meritocracy and 'myth', according to Bowles and Gintis?

Education legitimated inequality by:

- Passing on ideologies that claim success is based on ability, but it's actually class background --> and this persuades workers to accept inequality.


What is Willis' learning to labour study?

A study on an anti-school subculture called 'the lads'.

- These boys rejected schools ideologies to indoctrinate them.


How many boys were in Willis' study?

Group of 12 w/c boys.


How did Willis' boys resist capitalist ideologies?

Resisted authority by:

1. Smoking.

2. Disrupting class.

3. Truancy.


How did Willis' boys still meet the needs of capitalism?

Even though they resisted capitalist ideologies:

- They ended up as manual workers - like their fathers.

- This resulted in reproducing class inequality.


How are Marxist theories applied to privatisation?

Privatising educational services results in more direct capitalist control.


What are the evaluations of Marxism?

1). Postmodernist.

2). Feminists.

3). Marxists disagree among themselves.

4). Romanticisation.


How do Postmodernists criticise Marxists?

Say Marxism is out of date --> correspondence principle no longer operates:

- Where Marxists see inequality, there's actually diversity and choice.

- Class divisions are no longer important in a post-Fordist society.


How do feminists criticise Marxists?

Schools not only reproduce class inequality, but patriarchy too.

- McRobbie = points out that there are no girls in Willis' study - but his study has been the model for research into educational inequality.


How do Marxists disagree on the process of reproducing and legitimising inequality?

1). Bowles and Gintis =

Deterministic view --> pupils passively accept capitalist ideologies.

2). Willis =

Pupils may reject schools values and still end up in w/c jobs.


How has Willis' study been criticised for romanticising the 'lads'?

He presents them as heroes despite their anti-school behaviour and sexist attitudes.

- His study only has 12 boys --> hard to be representative.