Flashcards in Class Differences In Achievement - Internal Factors Deck (31)
What are the internal factors that cause class differences in achievement?
2. Self-fulfilling prophecy.
4. Pupil subcultures.
5. Pupils' identity and the school.
Which theory is dominant in internal factors?
they focus of interactions between teachers and pupils, and identify factors that cause underachievement.
What are labels?
Meanings or definitions we attach to someone/something to make sense of them.
- e.g. m/c pupils are labelled as 'bright, motivated, cooperative, etc'.
Who are the 3 sociologists that discussed labelling as causing class underachievement?
3. Dunne and Gazely.
What did Becker study about labelling in schools?
1. Interviewed 60 Chicago teachers.
2. Found they judged pupils on how closely they fitted the ideal pupil.
3. m/c closest to ideal pupil, and w/c furthest from it.
4. This lead to w/c feeling marginalised --> less successful because teachers were more likely to send them out of class, etc.
What did Jogensen find about labelling in schools?
1. Study of 2 English primary schools in 2009.
2. Found the ideal pupil varied depending on the social class make-up of the school.
3. In the w/c school; quiet, passive and obedient were closest to ideal pupil.
4 In the m/c school; personality and academic abilities defined ideal pupil as behaviour wasn't much of an issue.
What did Dunne and Gazely find about labelling and underachievement?
1. Interviews in 9 English secondary schools.
2. Found teachers 'normalised' w/c under-achievement because they labelled w/c parents as uninterested in their child's education.
3. However, m/c underachievement was dealt with extended work as teachers labelled their parents as supportive.
What did Dunne and Gazely conclude about teachers' labelling?
The way teachers dealt with underachievement lead to w/c underachievement as they were negatively labelled and weren't given help.
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
A prediction that comes true simply because it has been made.
- e.g. "he's stupid - he's bound to fail" = he goes on to fail.
Who demonstrates a self-fulfilling prophecy in a primary school?
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968).
What did Rosenthal and Jacobson do?
Gave an IQ test to all pupils and said 20% of them were intellectual 'bloomers' (randomly selected)
- Upon returning 1 year later, they found 47% of the 'bloomers' made significant improvements.
What did Rosenthal and Jacobson's study show about self-fulfilling prophecies in schools?
Their study illustrates an important interaction principle:
- What people believe to be true, will in fact become true.
- However, this self-fulfilling prophecy can be negative.
How is the interactionists approach to self-fulfilling prophecies criticised?
Too deterministic =
not all pupils who are labelled as failures fulfil the prophecy; some reject the label and succeed (self-refuting prophecy).
- Not all teachers label w/c pupils negatively.
How are self-fulfilling prophecies and streaming linked, use Becker's ideas?
As w/c pupils aren't 'ideal', they are placed in lower streams, therefore, living up to the teachers low expectations.
What did Douglas find about pupils placed in a high stream?
Children that were placed in a high stream at age 8 had improved their IQ score by age 11.
What did Gillborn and Youdell find about streaming in their study.
- Study of 2 London secondary schools.
- Teachers are more likely to place w/c (black) pupils in lower streams as they view them as having less ability.
According to Gillborn and Youdell, what is the A-to-C economy?
A system where schools focus on pupils who have the potential to get 5 C grades and improving league tables - so streaming is involved.
What is the educational triage?
The way schools decide whether a pupils is unable to get 5 GCSE (C), so they will produce a self-fulfilling prophecy by placing them into lower streams.
What are the 3 categories of the educational triage?
1). Those who will pass (left alone).
2). Those who have potential (with help).
3). Those with no hope, they will fail.
What is the decision of the teachers based on in the educational triage?
Pupils' social class = w/c (black) lack ability.
Who uses the concept of 'differentiation' and 'polarisation' to explain how pupil subcultures develop?
What is differentiation?
categorising pupils based on stereotypes differentiates them from the rest of the school.
How does differentiation lead to w/c subcultures?
Anti-school subculture =
- have low self-worth, so they invert school values to achieve status elsewhere (their peers).
What is an example of the values of an anti-school subculture?
Truancy, being cheeky to the teacher.
What is polarisation?
Streaming polarised boys to 'pro-school' and 'anti-school'.
What is the difference between a pro-school subculture and an anti-school subculture?
- Pro-school usually affects the higher stream (m/c), where they gain status legitimately.
- Pro-school = their values correspond with school, anti-school subcultures invert them.
What is an issue of anti-school subcultures?
Pupils have a self-fulfilling prophecy of educational failure.
What does Hargreaves find about anti-school subcultures?
Secondary modern schools =
boys in lower streams were triple failures;
- failed 11+ exam.
- placed in low streams.
- been labelled 'worthless louts'.
What did Stephen Ball (1981) find about abolishing streaming?
- Studied a comprehensive that was abolishing streaming.
- Polarisation had decreased - anti-school subcultures declined.
- Differentiation continued - teachers still labelled pupils.