Flashcards in Gender Differences In Achievement - Internal/External Factors Deck (45)
According to official statistics, which gender consistently performs better in school?
72% got 5 or more A* -C GCSE's in 2013, whereas; only 64% of boys did (Official statistics).
In Key Stages 1 to 3, which subject do females do consistently better?
- But the gender gap of maths and science is narrower.
Is the gender gap narrower at GCSE or A-level?
- Girls are more likely to sit, pass and get higher grades than boys, but the gap is still narrow.
Why does the gender gap look 'bad' for boys?
Because they are compared to girls, however, exam results have improved for both sexes so they only look 'bad' when they are compared.
What are the factors that have influenced girls' improvement in achievement?
1). Internal factors.
2). External factors.
What internal factors can explain girls' achievement improving?
1. Equal opportunities policies.
2. Role models.
4. Stereotyping in learning material.
5. Teacher attention.
6. Selection and league tables.
How has equal opportunities policies led to greater achievement in girls?
The feminist belief that girls and boys should have equality in education is widely accepted, and the introduction of policies has proved this equality.
What policies have been introduced to increase equal opportunities for boys and girls?
- GIST and WISE
- National Curriculum = boys and girls largely study the same subjects.
What does Boaler (1998) say about equal opportunity policies?
This is the main reason for girls' improvement in achievement.
- Education is more meritocratic --> girls have more equal opportunities and so, will do better.
How has the increase of female role models led to girls' achievement increasing?
The increase of women in senior positions in schools have shown girls that they can achieve positions of importance.
- Schools have become more 'feminised' as a result, so girls accept success as a desirable feminine characteristic.
What percentage of head teachers are female in secondary schools, in 1992 and 2012?
1992 = 22%.
2012 = 37%.
Shows the increase of females in senior positions in schools.
What does Gorard (2005) find about the introduction of GCSE's and coursework?
In 1989, the gender gap sharply increased (GCSE and coursework were introduced).
What does Gorard conclude about the gender gap in achievement?
Its due to the different way the system assess pupils (e.g. coursework) not due to boys failing more.
What do Mitsos and Browne (1998) conclude about girls and coursework?
They do better in coursework because they are better organised and take more time/care in their work.
- This is why they have achieved greater than boys since the introduction of coursework.
How does Elwood (2005) criticise Gorard and, Mitsos and Browne?
Although coursework has some impact on results, exams have the most influence on final grades, so;
- It is unlikely coursework is the only reason for the gender gap.
How has gender stereotyping in textbooks and learning materials changed since the 1970/80s?
- Women mainly portrayed as housewives and mothers.
- Physics books showed them as afraid of science.
- Maths books showed boys as more inventive.
sexist material has been removed as teachers challenged this.
How has the changing stereotypes in the curriculum led to girls' achievement improving?
Removal of sexist attitudes in books has presented them more positively, allowing them to see what women can actually do.
What topic does changing stereotypes in the curriculum link to?
Equal opportunity policies =
GIST and WISE allowed girls to do traditionally male subjects, showing them that they shouldn't be 'afraid'; of science.
Who conducts studies into teachers' attention?
1). Spender (1983).
2). French and French ( 1993).
3). Francis (2001).
4). Swann (1998).
What did Spender find about teacher's attention?
Teachers spent more time interacting with boys than girls.
What did French and French find about teacher's attention in schools?
Found boys and girls Received the same academic attention, but boys attracted more punishments for misbehaviour.
What did Francis find about teacher's attention in schools?
Although boys Received more attention:
- They were disciplined more.
- Felt that teachers were more harsh to them.
- Felt teachers had lower expectations of them.
What did Swann find about teacher's attention?
- Boys =
Dominate class discussion.
- Girls =
Prefer group work and are better at cooperating and listening --> so teachers responded more positively to girls.
How does gender achievement affect selection and league tables?
- Girls =
Generally more successful so are attractive to schools.
- Boys =
Lower-achieving and more badly behaved, this will give the school a bad image.
Which gender is more likely to get a place at a more successful school?
This leads to them getting a better education and achieving more, and so on.
Which type of feminist welcomes the progress of equal opportunity policies?
Which type of feminist is critical of equal opportunity policies?
Radical feminists =
Regardless, education is still patriarchal (e.g. sexual harassment of girls, head teachers are more likely to be men, etc).
What are the external factors that have contributed to the improvement of girls' achievement?
2). Girls' changing perceptions and ambitions.
3). Changes in the family.
4). Changes in women's employment.
How has the influence of feminism impacted girls' educational achievement?
Feminist movements for social policy changes (equality) has led to girls aspirations changing, believing they are able to do careers that aren't traditional.