Ethnic Differences in Achievement - Internal Factors (Institutional Racism) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ethnic Differences in Achievement - Internal Factors (Institutional Racism) Deck (11)
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How is this approach different from looking at the interactions (labelling)?

Instead of looking at individual teacher's racism, this looks at racism as a whole (even unconsciously) of schools.


How do critical race theorists (CRT) view institutional racism?

Deep-rooted, 'looked-in' feature, it's so large that racism no longer needs to be intentional --> it feeds on itself.


What is meant by an ethnocentric curriculum?

A curriculum that disregards/downgrades a particular ethnic group, while prioritising another.


Who discusses the ethnocentric curriculum?

1). Troyna and Williams =

gives priority to English culture and language.

2). David =

'specifically British' curriculum.

3). Ball =

history curriculum --> recreating a 'mythical age of empire and past glories', while ignoring the history of black and Asian people.


What is the impact of the ethnocentric curriculum?

Ethnic minorities feel their culture isn't valued =

- this diminishes their sense of self-esteem.

- inevitably making them under-achieve.


Apart from an ethnocentric curriculum, what are other examples of institutional racism?

1). Selection and segregation.

2). Assessment.

3). Access to opportunities.

4). The new IQism.


Who says marketisation allows negative stereotypes to influence decisions about admission?

Gillborn (1997).


How does Gillborn say assessment in schools is rigged to fail black pupils?

Baseline assessments = blacks ahead of whites.

Replaced in 2003 by foundation stage profile =

- based on teacher's judgements (stereotyping).
- blacks behind whites.


What did Tikly and Strand find about black pupils' opportunities?

They are more likely to be placed in lower-tier exams =

- as they are placed in lower sets/streams.

- due to teacher's expectations --> self-fulfilling prophecy.


What is meant by 'the new IQism'?

- Schools are using old-style IQ tests to allocate pupils to streams (think ability is innate).

- Black pupils placed in lower streams as a result.


What are the criticisms of Gillborn's view that ethnic differences are the result of institutional racism?

1). Sewell rejects the CRT =

- says institutional racism isn't powerful enough to prevent pupils succeeding.

- need to focus on external factors.