Flashcards in Gender Differences in Achievement - Pupils' Sexual and Gender Identities Deck (14)
What does this topic focus on?
How pupils' experiences in school help to construct and reinforce their gender/sexual identities.
According to Connell (1995), what is hegemonic masculinity?
Dominance of heterosexual masculine identity and subordination of female and gay identities.
- schools reproduces this.
How do feminists describe experiences in school shaping pupils' identities?
Experiences in school act as a form of social control to reproduce patriarchy.
According to feminists, what are the different ways experiences in school reproduce patriarchy?
1). Verbal abuse.
2). Teachers attitudes towards pupils.
3). The male gaze.
4). Double standards.
5). Female peer group.
How does verbal abuse act as a form of social control?
Name-calling puts girls down if the behave/act in certain ways.
- it makes pupils conform to male expectations.
Who discusses verbal abuse as a form of social control in schools?
1). Lees (1986).
3). Mac an Ghaill (1992).
What did Lees find about verbal abuse?
- Boys called girls 'slags' if they appeared to be sexually available.
- 'Drags' if they didn't.
What did Paechter find about verbal abuse towards boys?
Called 'gay' and 'queer' as a form of negative labels on their sexual identities.
What did Mac an Ghaill find about anti-school w/c subcultures verbal abuse?
They used verbal abuse to reinforce masculinity.
- they called other w/c hard working children 'dickhead achievers'.
Who found male teachers reinforced gender identities?
Haywood and Mac an Ghaill (1996) =
- told boys off for 'behaving like girls'.
- ignored boys' verbal abuse to girls.
How is male gaze a form of social control to reinforce patriarchy?
This is where male pupils and teachers look girls up and down as sexual objects.
- boys who don't conform may be labelled as 'gay' (social control).
What does Lees (1993) mean by 'double standards' as a form of social control?
Boys boast about their sexual exploits =
- but negatively label girls for the same behaviour.
What did Archer find about w/c girls gaining symbolic capitalism?
They gain symbolic capitalism (status and popularity) by performing a hyper-heterosexual identity =
- girls who don't conform are labelled as 'tramps'.