Ethnic Differences in Achievement - Internal Factors (Labelling, Pupil Subculture). Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ethnic Differences in Achievement - Internal Factors (Labelling, Pupil Subculture). Deck (21)
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What are the internal factors causing ethnic differences?

1). Labelling.

2). Pupil subcultures.

3). Ethnocentricity and institutional racism.


What is the main sociological approach to internal factors?

Interactionists =

- focus on face-to-face interactions between teachers and pupils.


How do labels imposed by teachers result in ethnic differences?

Racist labels --> disadvantaging ethnic minorities --> self-fulfilling prophecy = under-achievement.


What did Gillborn and Mirza (2000) find about black pupils' achievement?

- Primary school = highest achievers on entry.

- GCSE = 21 points below average.

Suggests the school is to blame, not background.


What did Gillborn and Youdell (2000) find about teachers racially labelling black pupils?

- Based on racial expectations, they believed black pupils had more discipline problems.

- Saw their behaviour as threatening.

- More likely to be punished for the same behaviour.

- Pupils felt they were being picked on.


What do Gillborn and Youdell conclude about teachers labelling black pupils?

Conflict is a result of racist stereotypes of the teacher, not the pupils background.


how can labelling black pupils lead to under-achievement?

1). Higher levels of exclusion of black boys (Bourne).

2). Black pupils being placed in lower sets/streams.


What did Wright (1992) find about teachers labelling Asian primary students?

Stereotyped them and treated them differently =

- assumed poor English --> used simplistic language.

- mispronounced children's names.

- saw them as a problem they could ignore.


How does teacher's actions to Asian pupils lower self-esteem and result in under-achievement?

They would feel worthless, marginalising them.

- this will prevent them from achieving, making them inevitably feel worse.


Why are pupil subcultures formed?

As a result of labelling.


What responses do black boys take to labelling, according to Sewell (1998)?

1). Conformists =

keen to succeed and accepted the school goals.

2). Innovators =

pro-education, anti-school --> value school, but not teacher approval.

3). Retreatists =

disconnected from school and black subcultures.

4). Rebels =

became the 'black macho lad' and despised white boys, and black conformist boys.

- shows that not all black pupils live up to teachers expectations.


How does Sewell say black people joining subcultures has led to under-achievement?

Even though only a minority of black boys fitted the 'macho' stereotype =

- teachers viewed them all like this.

- discrimination led to under-achievement.


According to Sewell, what is more important in causing underachievement of black boys?

External factors --> peer pressure, street culture and the lack of a nurturing father.


According to Archer, what are the 3 ways teachers define pupils' identities?

1). Ideal pupil identity =

- white m/c, masculinised identity.

- achieve through natural ability.

2). Pathologised pupil identity =

- Asian, feminised identity.

- slogger --> achieve through hard work.

3). Demonised pupil identity =

- black/white w/c.

- peer led, culturally deprived, under-achiever.


What pupil identity are ethnic minorities likely to be seen as, according to Archer?

Pathologised or demonised =

- this leads to their under-achievement as teachers label them.


Which 2 sociologists show how ethnic minorities reject negative labels?

1). Fuller (1984) =

- groups of high achieving black girls in year 11.

2). Mac an Ghaill (1992) =

- study of black and Asian Alevel students.


What did Fuller find?

- Group of black girls in year 11 (rejected teacher stereotypes).

- Determined to achieve, worked hard without looking like they were.

- Didn't seek teachers approval (like innovators).


What did Mac an Ghaill find?

- Black and Asian Alevel students.

- Didn't accept teacher's negative labels.

- e.g. girls who attended all girls school = felt it gave them a greater academic commitment to overcome negative labels at college.


What did Mirza find about black girls' strategies for dealing with negative labels?

It put them at a disadvantage, even though they didn't accept the label.

- e.g. not asking certain staff for help.


How does Fuller and Mac an Ghaill's findings criticise Sewell?

Too deterministic =

- labelling doesn't inevitably result in a self-fulfilling prophecy of failure, sometimes they refute it.


How is the labelling theory criticised?

They assume that once labelled, pupils will have a self-fulfilling prophecy.