Flashcards in Ethnic Differences in Achievement - Internal Factors (Labelling, Pupil Subculture). Deck (21)
What are the internal factors causing ethnic differences?
2). Pupil subcultures.
3). Ethnocentricity and institutional racism.
What is the main sociological approach to internal factors?
- focus on face-to-face interactions between teachers and pupils.
How do labels imposed by teachers result in ethnic differences?
Racist labels --> disadvantaging ethnic minorities --> self-fulfilling prophecy = under-achievement.
What did Gillborn and Mirza (2000) find about black pupils' achievement?
- Primary school = highest achievers on entry.
- GCSE = 21 points below average.
Suggests the school is to blame, not background.
What did Gillborn and Youdell (2000) find about teachers racially labelling black pupils?
- Based on racial expectations, they believed black pupils had more discipline problems.
- Saw their behaviour as threatening.
- More likely to be punished for the same behaviour.
- Pupils felt they were being picked on.
What do Gillborn and Youdell conclude about teachers labelling black pupils?
Conflict is a result of racist stereotypes of the teacher, not the pupils background.
how can labelling black pupils lead to under-achievement?
1). Higher levels of exclusion of black boys (Bourne).
2). Black pupils being placed in lower sets/streams.
What did Wright (1992) find about teachers labelling Asian primary students?
Stereotyped them and treated them differently =
- assumed poor English --> used simplistic language.
- mispronounced children's names.
- saw them as a problem they could ignore.
How does teacher's actions to Asian pupils lower self-esteem and result in under-achievement?
They would feel worthless, marginalising them.
- this will prevent them from achieving, making them inevitably feel worse.
Why are pupil subcultures formed?
As a result of labelling.
What responses do black boys take to labelling, according to Sewell (1998)?
1). Conformists =
keen to succeed and accepted the school goals.
2). Innovators =
pro-education, anti-school --> value school, but not teacher approval.
3). Retreatists =
disconnected from school and black subcultures.
4). Rebels =
became the 'black macho lad' and despised white boys, and black conformist boys.
- shows that not all black pupils live up to teachers expectations.
How does Sewell say black people joining subcultures has led to under-achievement?
Even though only a minority of black boys fitted the 'macho' stereotype =
- teachers viewed them all like this.
- discrimination led to under-achievement.
According to Sewell, what is more important in causing underachievement of black boys?
External factors --> peer pressure, street culture and the lack of a nurturing father.
According to Archer, what are the 3 ways teachers define pupils' identities?
1). Ideal pupil identity =
- white m/c, masculinised identity.
- achieve through natural ability.
2). Pathologised pupil identity =
- Asian, feminised identity.
- slogger --> achieve through hard work.
3). Demonised pupil identity =
- black/white w/c.
- peer led, culturally deprived, under-achiever.
What pupil identity are ethnic minorities likely to be seen as, according to Archer?
Pathologised or demonised =
- this leads to their under-achievement as teachers label them.
Which 2 sociologists show how ethnic minorities reject negative labels?
1). Fuller (1984) =
- groups of high achieving black girls in year 11.
2). Mac an Ghaill (1992) =
- study of black and Asian Alevel students.
What did Fuller find?
- Group of black girls in year 11 (rejected teacher stereotypes).
- Determined to achieve, worked hard without looking like they were.
- Didn't seek teachers approval (like innovators).
What did Mac an Ghaill find?
- Black and Asian Alevel students.
- Didn't accept teacher's negative labels.
- e.g. girls who attended all girls school = felt it gave them a greater academic commitment to overcome negative labels at college.
What did Mirza find about black girls' strategies for dealing with negative labels?
It put them at a disadvantage, even though they didn't accept the label.
- e.g. not asking certain staff for help.
How does Fuller and Mac an Ghaill's findings criticise Sewell?
Too deterministic =
- labelling doesn't inevitably result in a self-fulfilling prophecy of failure, sometimes they refute it.