Ethnic Differences in Achievement - External Factors (Cultural Deprivation) Flashcards Preview

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What are the main external factors affecting ethnic differences in achievement?

1). Cultural deprivation.

2). Material deprivation and class.

3). Racism in wider society.


How does cultural deprivation explain some ethnic under-achievement?

Caused by inadequate socialisation in the home.


What are the 3 main aspects of the cultural deprivation theory of explaining ethnic differences?

1). Intellectual and language skills.

2). Attitudes and values.

3). Family structure and parental support.


What do cultural deprivation theorists argue about low-income black families?

That these pupils lack intellectual stimulation.

- as a result, they under-achieve as they are unable to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills.


What does Bereiter and Engelmann claim about the language spoken by low-income black families?

It's disjointed and ungrammatical =

- their children are unable to express abstract ideas.

- this creates a barrier to educational progress.


How does Report criticise Bereiter and Engelmann's claim?

Language isn't a major factor in under-achievement =

- this negative effect is likely to be temporary.


What evidence shows language isn't a major factor to under-achievement?

Official statistics =

- in 2010, pupils with English as their first language were only 3.2 points of those without English as first language.


How does Gillborn and Mirza show language isn't a major factor in ethnic under-achievement?

Indian pupils do well despite often not speaking English at home.


How are the attitudes of black families different from mainstream cultures?

Fatalism and immediate gratification =

- the subculture in which black people are socialised is fatalistic and focus on immediate gratification.

- resulting in a lack of motivation to succeed.


What factors of the structure of black families contribute to their under-achievement?

1). Lack of male role models.

2). Culture of poverty.

3). Impact of slavery.

4). Fathers, gangs and cultures.


How does Moynihan say black female-headed lone-parent families lead to their under-achievement?

- Black children are deprived of adequate socialisation as male role model isn't present.

- This is due to many black families being lone female-headed.

- Sees this as a cycle, the children will go on to fail and inadequately socialise their children.


Who else discusses the family structure and parental support of some ethnic minorities having an impact on their under-achievement?

1). Charles Murray (1984).

2). Scruton (1986).

3). Pryce (1979).


What does Murray argue about the structure of some ethnic minorities' families contributing to their under-achievement?

High rates of female headed lone-parents and a lack of positive male role models leads to the under-achievement of some minority pupils.


What does Scruton say the reason for the under-achievement of some ethnic minorities is?

Their failure to embrace mainstream British culture.


What evidence contradicts Murray's claim?

1). Connor (2004) =

ethnic minority parents place a higher values on education than white parents.

2). Sewell (1998) =

only a minority of African-Carribean boys were anti-school.


How does Pryce explain black under-achievement?

Due to the impacts of slavery =

- black people, compared to Asian, are less resistant to racism.

- slavery meant they lost their language, culture, etc.

- this has resulted in black pupils having low self-esteem and under-achieving.


How does Sewell (2009) oppose Murray?

Instead of there being a lack of fathers, its a lack of fatherly nurturing (tough, firm, fair) =

- as a result, they turn to anti-school street gangs which offer perverse loyalty and love.


How does Sewell describe the influence in black under-achievement?

Street gangs supplement the absence of a nurturing father, therefore, being anti-school and failing.


What does Sewell say the greatest barrier to success is for black boys?

Based on interviews =

- he found the greatest barrier for academically successful black boys was peer pressure from other black boys.


According to Sewell, why do black pupils do worse than Asian pupils?

Cultural differences in socialisation.

- black pupils may be influenced by MTV.

- whereas, Asian pupils are more likely to be 'clocking up the educational hours'.


According to Sewell, how do Asain and Chinese families' culture differ from black families?

They have a supportive 'Asian work ethic' and place high value on education.


What did Lupton (2004) find about the effect adult authority in Asian families had on school?

Their respectful behaviour towards parents was reflected in school =

- more likely to obey teachers.

- their parents are more likely to be supportive of school behaviour policies.


How does McCulloch (2014) support the argument that ethnic minorities are more likely to go to university?

- Survey on 16,000 pupils.

- Found ethnic minority pupils are more likely to aspire to go to university than white British pupils.


Why do white w/c pupils also under-achieve?

Because they have lower aspirations than other ethnic groups.

- resulting in white w/c cultures, including a lack of parental support.


What research supports the claim that white w/c pupils under-achieve because of a lack of aspirations and parental support?

1). Lupton (2014).

2). Evans (2006).


What did Lupton (2014) find about the parental support of white w/c pupils?

- Study on 4 mainly white w/c schools (2 = white, 1 = mainly Pakistani, 1 = mixed ethnic).

- Found poorer behaviour and discipline in the white w/c schools.

- Teachers blamed this on lower parental support and negative attitudes towards education.


What did Evans (2006) say the main cause of white w/c under-achievement is?

Street culture in white w/c areas =

- can be brutal and is brought to school.

- this disrupts success as there is a strong pressure to reject education.


What educational policy has been adopted to tackle cultural deprivation?

Compensatory education.


What are some examples of compensatory education?

1). Operation Head Start =

- In the USA.

- Established to compensate children for the cultural deficit they are said to suffer because of deprived backgrounds.

2). Sure Start =

- In the UK.

- Aims to support the development of pre-school children in deprived areas.


What are the criticisms of the cultural deprivation theory of ethnic differences?

1). Victim-blaming =

- they are culturally different, not deprived.

- fail because schools are ethnocentric (favour of white).

2). Cultural exclusion =

- ethnic parents don't know how to negotiate with the school, so are culturally excluded, not deprived.

3). Cultural domination =

- compensatory education imposes white m/c culture on minorities' own culture (imposed etic).