Gender Differences in Achievement - Gender and Subject Choice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gender Differences in Achievement - Gender and Subject Choice Deck (20)
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What is meant by gender and subject choice?

Boys and girls tend to choose different subjects:

- Boys = maths and physics.

- Girls = modern languages.


How does the national curriculum allow boys and girls to choose different subjects?

Where some subjects are compulsory but allow choice, for example:

In DT =

- boys = resistant materials.

- girls = food.


What is the gender difference in subject choice in A-Level?

More choice available =

- Boys = maths and physics.

- Girls = modern languages, English and sociology.


Which type of courses is gender segregation at its highest?

Vocational courses.


What percentage of construction apprentices are female?



What factors are responsible for gender differences in gender choice?

1). Early socialisation and gender domains.

2). Gendered subject images.

3). Gender identity and peer pressure.

4). Gendered career opportunities.


Who are the different sociologists who discuss gender differences in subject choice?

1). Norman (1988) --> early socialisation.

2). Byrne (1979) --> school expectations of boys and girls.

3). Murphy and Elwood (1998) --> differences in socialisation leads to different subject choices.

4). Browne and Ross (1991) --> gender domains.

5). Murphy (1991) --> boys and girls focus on different things.

6). Colley (1998) --> computer studies is masculine.

7). Leonard (2006) --> girls in all-girls schools are more likely to take maths and science A-level.

8). Paechter (1998) --> sport is manly - girls are more likely to opt out.

9). Dewar (1990) --> boys call girls lesbian if interested in sport.

10). Fuller (2011) --> w/c go into jobs that reflect their habitus (hair and beauty).


Who says socialisation impacts gender subject choice?

1). Norman =

boys/girls are dressed differently, encouraged to take part in different activities.

2). Byrne =

teachers encourage boys to be tough or behave like sissies, girls to be quiet and tidy.

3). Murphy and Elwood =

types of books read influence subject choice.


What is meant by gender domains?

Tasks and activities boys/girls view as gender stereotypical - they identify with them.


What does Browne and Ross argue about gender domains?

They are shaped by early socialisation:

= they are more confident when taking part in their own gender domains (in-groups).


What did Murphy find about boys and girls paying attention to certain details?

Girls =

- focus on how people feel.

Boys =

- focus on how things are made/work.

This influences their subject choice.


Who discusses gendered subject images?



Why does Colley say computer science is seen as masculine?

1). Working with machines (male gender domain).

2). Abstract teaching, limited group work = off-putting to girls.


What did Browne and Ross find in their study on designing boats?

Boys =

- powerboats and battleships.

Girls =

- cruise ships.

This reflects their gender domains.


What did Leonard find about single-sex schooling subject choice?

Girls in girls schools' =

- more likely to choose maths/science A level.

Boys in boys schools' =

- more likely to take English and languages.


What did Paechter find about gender domains and gender identity with sport?

Sport is seen as masculine (in male domain).

- girls are more likely to opt out.


How does an absense of peer pressure in single-sex schools explain subject choice?

Absense of peer pressure from opposite sex =

- explains why girls do traditionally male subjects.

- less pressure to conform to stereotypes.


How does gender stereotyping jobs affect their subject choice?

For example, if boys think nursing is female, they wont opt for the course.


What do pupils base their choice of vocational courses on?

Traditional sense of gender identity.


What did Fuller find about girls' choice of vocational courses?

- w/c girls had ambitions for childcare and hair, reflecting their habitus.

- this was influenced by the schools gendered placements, steering them towards stereotypical roles.