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Y3 CORE CONDITIONS > ENDOCRINE SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (151)
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61

Give 5 limb-related symptoms of hypothyroidism

myxoedema
myalgia
arthralgia
paraesthesia in hands
neuropathy (carpal tunnel)
Slow reflexes due to cerebellar ataxia

62

give 2 facial symptoms of hypothyroidism

face swelling
hair loss outer 1/3 of eyebrow

63

give 2 complications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy

pre-eclampsia
low birth weight
premature birth

64

What are the causes of thyroid nodules?

cyst
thyroiditis
tumour
overgrowth of normal tissue
Iodine deficiency

65

how many of the population have palpable goitres?
a) 1%
b) 9%
c) 30%
d) 70%

b) 9%

66

how can smoking cause a goitre

thiocyanate in cigarettes interferes with body's use of iodine

67

how many goitres are thyroid cancer?
a) 1 in 10
b) 1 in 20
c) 1 in 100
d) 1 in 200

b) 1 in 20

68

give 5 differential diagnoses for goitre

pharyngeal pouch
tumour
cyst
submandibular stones
carotid aneurysm/tortuous (pulsatile)

69

What are the ranges of HB1ac for DMT1?
Normal, pre diabetic and diabetic?

<42mmol/ml = normal
42-47mmol/ml = pre diabetic
>48mmol/ml = diabetic

70

How can you diagnose diabetes other than using the HB1ac?

2 out of 3 on 2 separate occasions
Fasting glucose >7
Random glucose >11
Glucose tolerance test

71

What does the HB1ac test look at?

The average amount of glucose in your blood in the last 2 to three months

72

What is DKA?

When you body lacks insulin it breaks down fat to produce and high level of glucose also causes hyperglycemia. Can be fatal

73

What are the physical symptoms a DMT1 patient might get?

Blurred vision
Fatigue
Weight loss
Feel very thirsty
Increase urine output especially at night
Takes longer for cuts and grazes to heal
Itchiness around the genital area

74

Differential diagnosis of DMT1?

Type 2
Maturity onset diabetes of the young

75

What is MODY?

It is caused by single gene passing through family
Diabetes under 25 with parents having diabetes

76

What lifestyle factors should you consider with DMT1?

Reduce weight
Healthy eat
No smoking
Exercise
Reduce BP

77

What are risk factors of DMT2?

Age
Obesity
Diabetes or pre diabetes while pregnant
5 * more common if South asian or African Carribean (over 25)
First degree relative with DMT2

78

Before you have medical treatment what should you advice patients to do who have DMT2?

Reduce weight
More exercise
Eat healthier= less sugar and fat. More fibre

79

What should you monitor regularly in a patient with DMT?

Eyes and feet

80

What treatment do you give if the first 3 lines of treatment for DMT2 don't work?

Insulin

81

What are thyroid nodules?

Solid/fluid filled lumps in thyroid gland

82

What are the risk factors for thyroid nodules?

Smocking
FHx
Amiodarone and lithium side effects

83

What are the symptoms of thyroid nodules

Often asymptomatic
Release thyroxine which is a causes by hyperthyriodism

84

What are the signs of thyroid nodules?

On swallowing see movement of nodules
Enlarged thyroid

85

How can you diagnose thyroid nodules and goitre?

Often incidental
Physical examination
US
TFT's and autoantibodies
Fine needle aspiration
Radioactive iodine scan

86

What is red flag symptom of thyroid nodule?

Stridor with thyroid mass

87

What developments of thyroid would indicate urgent referral?

Child with thyroid nodule
Painless thyroid mass that has enlarged rapidly
Hoarseness or change in voice with goitre
Palpable cervical lymphadenopathy

88

What is treatment for thyroid nodule?

Treat underline cause
Excision if malignant
Treat hyperthyroidism

89

What are the two type of goitre?

Diffuse smooth goitre
Nodular goitre

90

What are the causes of diffuse smooth goitre?

Iodine deficiency
Graves disease