Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (151)
Give 5 limb-related symptoms of hypothyroidism
paraesthesia in hands
neuropathy (carpal tunnel)
Slow reflexes due to cerebellar ataxia
give 2 facial symptoms of hypothyroidism
hair loss outer 1/3 of eyebrow
give 2 complications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy
low birth weight
What are the causes of thyroid nodules?
overgrowth of normal tissue
how many of the population have palpable goitres?
how can smoking cause a goitre
thiocyanate in cigarettes interferes with body's use of iodine
how many goitres are thyroid cancer?
a) 1 in 10
b) 1 in 20
c) 1 in 100
d) 1 in 200
b) 1 in 20
give 5 differential diagnoses for goitre
carotid aneurysm/tortuous (pulsatile)
What are the ranges of HB1ac for DMT1?
Normal, pre diabetic and diabetic?
<42mmol/ml = normal
42-47mmol/ml = pre diabetic
>48mmol/ml = diabetic
How can you diagnose diabetes other than using the HB1ac?
2 out of 3 on 2 separate occasions
Fasting glucose >7
Random glucose >11
Glucose tolerance test
What does the HB1ac test look at?
The average amount of glucose in your blood in the last 2 to three months
What is DKA?
When you body lacks insulin it breaks down fat to produce and high level of glucose also causes hyperglycemia. Can be fatal
What are the physical symptoms a DMT1 patient might get?
Feel very thirsty
Increase urine output especially at night
Takes longer for cuts and grazes to heal
Itchiness around the genital area
Differential diagnosis of DMT1?
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
What is MODY?
It is caused by single gene passing through family
Diabetes under 25 with parents having diabetes
What lifestyle factors should you consider with DMT1?
What are risk factors of DMT2?
Diabetes or pre diabetes while pregnant
5 * more common if South asian or African Carribean (over 25)
First degree relative with DMT2
Before you have medical treatment what should you advice patients to do who have DMT2?
Eat healthier= less sugar and fat. More fibre
What should you monitor regularly in a patient with DMT?
Eyes and feet
What treatment do you give if the first 3 lines of treatment for DMT2 don't work?
What are thyroid nodules?
Solid/fluid filled lumps in thyroid gland
What are the risk factors for thyroid nodules?
Amiodarone and lithium side effects
What are the symptoms of thyroid nodules
Release thyroxine which is a causes by hyperthyriodism
What are the signs of thyroid nodules?
On swallowing see movement of nodules
How can you diagnose thyroid nodules and goitre?
TFT's and autoantibodies
Fine needle aspiration
Radioactive iodine scan
What is red flag symptom of thyroid nodule?
Stridor with thyroid mass
What developments of thyroid would indicate urgent referral?
Child with thyroid nodule
Painless thyroid mass that has enlarged rapidly
Hoarseness or change in voice with goitre
Palpable cervical lymphadenopathy
What is treatment for thyroid nodule?
Treat underline cause
Excision if malignant
What are the two type of goitre?
Diffuse smooth goitre