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Y3 CORE CONDITIONS > ENDOCRINE SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (151)
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91

What is a goitre?

Abnormal swelling of thyroid gland

92

What are the causes of goitre?

Pregnancy
Menopause
Hypo/hyperthyriodism
thyroid cancer (1 in20 of goitres)
smoking
Iodine deficiency
Drugs: lithium and immunosuppressors

93

What can be a serious side effect of goitre?

Can compress trachea or esophagus

94

What is cushings syndrome?

When the body produces to much cortisol

95

What type of hormone is cortisol and what is its main aim?

It's the stress hormone and maintains homeostasis

96

What is cushings disease and how does it cause cushings syndrome?

It is hyperplasia and tumour growth on the pituitary gland causing excess production of ACTH which leads to excess production of cortisol

97

How does Corticotroponin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus cause Cushing's?

While rare it can cause excessive production of ACTH by the pituitrary gland

98

What does ACTH stand for?

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

99

What are non ACTH causes of cushings syndrome?

Excessive glucocorticoid
Adrenal adenoma and carcinoma
Long term corticosteroids use

100

What is the ratio of female to male in cushings?

5:1

101

What group of people have high incidence of cushings?

Diabetics
Osteoporsis group
Hypertension
Obese people

102

How long free does the urine have to be of cortisol to not have cushings?

24hours

103

What happens to your mood in cushings?

Depression and fatigue

104

What happens to your BP and glucose levels in cushings?

Hypertension
Hyperglycaemia

105

What is sub acute (de-quervain's) thyroiditis (self limiting)?

Self limiting painful goitre
Causes rise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and no radio iodine uptake

106

What are the risk factors of hyperthyriodism?

Fhx
Pregnancy
Female
High iodine uptake
HAART
Child birth
Trauma and surgery to thyroid
smoking

107

Why does high uptake of iodine increase chance of hyperthyriodism?

Increases production of thyroxine

108

What are the physical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

Weight loss
Heat intolerance
Hair loss
Goitre
Sweaty
Over active
Diarrohea
Labile emotions

109

What happens sexually in hyperthyroidism?

Oligomenorrhoea
Infertility

110

What heart related symptoms do you get in hyperthyroidism?

Palpitations (AF, SVT) and tremor

111

What rare signs and symptoms do you get in hyperthyroidism?

Alopecia
Uriticaria
Physiocosis
itch

112

What drugs would you give to prevent thyroid production?

Propanolol
Carbimaazole

113

What are common side effects of hypothyriodism?

Weight gain
Constipation
Lethargy
Cold intolerance
Amenorrhoea
Hair loss in outer 1/3rd of eyebrow

114

How mentally does hypothyriodism effect a patient?

Depression
Lipid loss
Difficulty concentrating

115

What heart complications can you get in hypothyriodism?

Pericardial effusion

116

What is the treatment of hypothyriodism?

Levothyroxine

117

What drugs does Levothyroxine interact with?

Carbamexapine
Phenytoin
Rifampicin
Iron tablet

118

What complication of hypothyriodism increases chance of CVD?

High cholesterol levels

119

What is the role of TSH and what organ is it released from?

It is released from the anterior pituitary gland and it controls the production of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland

120

What is TRH and what organ is it released from?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus causes the release of TSH