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Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Deck (151)
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121

In response to TSH how much T3/T4 is produced by the thyroid gland?

More T4 to T3

122

Where is T4 activated to T3?

Peripherals in the kidney and liver

123

Is all of the T4 and T3 in a active state?

No only the hormones that are free are in the active state. Most of T4 and T3 are bounded to proteins (thyroglobulin)

124

What is the effect of circulating T4 and T3 on the TSH and TRH?

Circulating T4/3 depresses the release of TRH and TSH from hypothalamus and anterior pituitary respectively

125

What is the function of the parathyroid gland?

4 tiny glands that sit behind the neck and controls the level of calcium by releasing parathyroid hormone (PTH)

126

How does the release of PTH increase the levels of calcium in the body?

Breaks down bone and releases the body
Increases the ability to absorb calcium from food
Increase the kidney's ability to hold onto calcium instead of it being excreted via urine

127

What in parathyroid adenoma?
What does it cause

Benign tumour of the parathyroid gland
Increase release of Calcium from the bones causing hypercalcaemia

128

What are the symptoms of parathyroid adenoma?

Primary hyperparathyroid symptoms
Kidney stones
Depression due to hormone imbalance
Constipation
Fatigue

129

What is the diagnosis of Pt adenoma?

Blood: PTH and calcium levels

130

What is the treatment of PT adenoma and how effective is it?

Surgery for removal of affected gland and 95% successful

131

What is hyperparathyroidism?

Inappropriate activity of the parathyroid gland causing ^^PTH

132

What is primary hyperparathyroidism and what is the cause?

PTH levels is not determined by calcium serum levels. hypercalcaemia is the outcome
Caused by PT adenoma or dysfunction of the PT

133

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism and what is the cause?

It is when calcium levels do not respond to changes in PTH, causing hypocalcaemia
Parathyroid try to respond by increase the production of PTH
Caused by vitamin D3 deficiency

134

What causes Vitamin D3 deficiency?

CKD
Lack of sunshine
Dietary
Inability to convert from cholesterol

135

What is tertiary hyperparathyroidism?

It is long term secondary that leads to hyperplasisa and lowered response

136

What are symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Osteoporosis
Bone deformity
Bone fracture
Bone, muscle and abdo pain
Kidney stones
Urinary calculi
Cognitive impairment

137

What are symptoms of secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Rickets
Osteomalacia--> soften bone
Renal osteodystrophy

138

what is renal osteodystrophy?

It is weekend bones due to kidney inability to maintain normal calcium and phosphate levels

139

What is the diagnosis of a blood test if their is either :
a) high PTH and Calcium
b) high PTH but low Calcium

a) priamry
b) secondary

140

What is the treatment for
a) primary
b) secondary

a) surgery
b) treat the Vitamin D3 deficiency

141

What is addisons?

Adrenal gland insufficiency
Do not produce enough cortisol or aldosterone

142

What are the causes of addisons disease?

Developed world = autoimmune disease
Developing = TB
Sepsis and bleeding into the gland

143

What are the 4 main functions of cortisol?

Help to regulate BP, immune system
Help to balance insulin regulatory effects on blood glucose level
Help to control bodies response to stress

144

What is the function of aldosterone?

Helps to regulate salt levels in blood and control BP

145

What are the signs and symptoms of addisons disease?

Weight loss and loss of apeptite
Weakness
Light headness
Low blood pressure
Skin hyperpigmintation
Abdo pain and fatigue
Anxiety and low mood changes
the need to urinate frequently
increased thirst
craving for salty foods
Dehydration

146

What is adrenal crisis?

Low BP and syncope
Low back pain
Hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, hypercalcaemia, hypoglycaemia
Triggered by stress (injury, surgery, infection etc.)

147

What do you see in ABG for addisons patients?

Metabolic acidosis

148

What is treatment for addisons disease?

Hormone replacement e.g. hydrocortisone, prednisolone, fludrocortisone
o Normally oral
o Can have injection & dextrose in crisis
High salt diet

149

What are normal glucose levels in the
a) urine
b) blood?

A) 0-0.8mmol/L
b) 3.9-5.5 mmol/L

150

What is diabetes insipidus?

When you produce large amounts of urine and are very thirsty. Not linked to DM