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Flashcards in Energy flow in ecosystems Deck (98)
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1

ecology

the study of living things and their interactions with each other and their environment

2

ecosystem

a self-supporting sysetm of organisms interacting with each other and their environment

3

habitat

a place within an ecosystem where specific organisms live, e.g. pond or woodland

4

population

all of the organisms of a particular species found in an ecosystem

5

community

all the different species living in an ecosystem

6

competeition

the struggle for resources

7

biotic factor

all biological (living) components of the ecosystem (predation, food, competition, decomposition)

8

abiotic factor

(all the non-biological components of the ecosystem (including water, air, temperature, sunlight, etc...)

9

producer

organism that can make its own food (= autotroph)

10

primary consumer

organism that obtains energy by feeding on producers (=heterotroph)

11

secondary consumer

organism that obtains energy by feeding on primary consumer (= heterotroph)

12

herbivore

animal that feeds on plants only

13

carnivore

animal that feeds on other animals only

14

tertiary consumer

animal that has no natural predators

15

prey

animal hunted and killed by another animal for food

16

predator

animal that preys on other animals

17

detritivore

organism that feeds on dead/ decaying organic material (e.g. worm vulture) (=saprotroph)

18

decomposers

organism that decompose (break down) organic material (e.g. bacteria + fungi)

19

heterotroph

organism that feeds on other organisms (= consumer)

20

autotroph

organism that can make its own food (= producer)

21

saprotroph

organism that feeds on decaying organic material (= detritivore)

22

food chain

shows simple feeding relationships within an ecosystem

23

food web

shows complex feeding relationships within an ecosystem

24

trophic level

stage in a food chain (= feeding level)

25

pyramids of number

represents the number of organisms in each trophic level in a food chain (irrespective of their mass)

26

pyramids of biomass

represents the total mass of all the organisms in each trophic level (irrespective of their number)

27

pyramid of energy

shows the energy transferred through each trophic level in a food chain

28

quadrat

a square frame (sometimes gridded) for sampling organisms

29

The organisms: leaf, worm, mouse, owl

Label their trophic levels

Whether their are a producer or consumer and which consumer they are (primary, secondary...)

Whether they are prey or a predator

Whether they are a herbivore or carnivore

 

leaf → worm → mouse →owl

trophic level 1 → trophic level 2 → trophic level 3 → trophic level 4

prodcuer → primary consumer → secondary consumer → tertiary consumer

(N/A) → herbivore → carnivore → top carnivore

(N/A) → prey → prey, predator → predator

30

What would happen if the fox population decreased? (two outcomes)

squirrel population increases

woodmouse population increases