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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (55):
1

trachea

air enters our nose or mouth and passes down the windpipe (trachea)

2

bronchi

(singular = bronchus)

two tubes which split from the tranchea, one which leads to each lung

3

bronchiole

smaller tubes which have been divided from each bronchus

4

alveolus (-i)

micrscopic air sacs where air eventually ends up

here gas exchange with blood takes place

covered in blood capillaries

5

diaphragm

a muscular sheet of tissue

helps air move in and out of lungs

6

pleural membrane

thin moist membranes inside the thorax which surround the lungs

stop lungs sticking to ribs (they are moist)

7

How does amoeba take up oxygen?

(organism found in ponds)

oxygen diffuses through its cell membranes

large SA:V

8

How do lungs take up oxygen? 

lungs have a very large SA

we breath so oxygen can diffuse into our blood

9

What is the function of the respiratory system?

gas exchange

uptake of O2 (for respiration)

release of CO2 (waste product)

10

Label this structure of a respiratory system

11

Label this structure of an alveloi

12

pulmonary

of the lungs

13

vein

towards the heart

14

artery 

away from the heart

15

Label this gas exchange in the alveoli diagram

16

Label this gax echange in one alveolus diagram

17

How big is a blood cell?

approximately 8 µm

18

How big is a blood capillary?

approximately 10 µm

19

What is so special about the size of a blood capillary?

it is extremely small

blood cells have to travel single file and often on their sides because otheriwise they can't fit

this allows diffusion time

20

How is the respiratory system's surface area adapted for efficient gas exchange?

very large surface area (60 cm2)

lots of capillaries - high surface area between capillaries and alveoli

21

How is the respiratory system's concentration gradient adapted for efficient gas exchange?

the air in the aveolus has a higher concentration of oxygen  than the blood entering the capillary network - oxygen diffuses from the air to the blood

there is more carbon dioxide in the blood than there is in the air in the lungs 

the concentration gradient is maintained as blood in constantly moving on - breathing in high concentration of oxygen , moving on and breathing out a low concentration 

diffusion gradient for carbon dioxide is in the opposite direction to that of oxygen

blood which leaves the capillaries and flows back to the heart has gained oxygen and lost carbon dioxide

22

How is the respiratory system's diffusion distance adapted for efficient gas exchange?

very small distance - blood is only seperated by the cells making up the wall of the alveolus and the capillary wall itself

diffusion occurs rapidly

23

How is the respiratory system adapted for efficient gas exchange? (other points)

surfactant and moisture (stops alveolus from sticking together when it contracts)

moisture in surfactant dissolves O2 so it can enter the blood

24

ventilation

breathing in and breathing out

25

Complete this table

26

Label this diagram of ribs

27

Label this diagram of intercostal muscles

28

What happens when you inhale?

diaphragm contacts (flattens)

external intercostal muscles contract

ribcage moves out and upward

volume of chest cavity increases

lungs expand 

pressure inside decreases

air rushes into lungs to equalise pressure

29

What happens when you exhale?

diaphragm relaxes (moves upwards)

internal intercostal muscles contracts

ribcage moves down and inward

volume of chest cavity decreases

lung volume increases

pressure inside lungs increases

air flows out of lungs due to high pressure

30

inhilation

breathing in

31

exhalation

breathing out

32

Complete this inhalation diagram

33

Complete this exhalation diagram

34

Tidal Volume (TV)

volume of air breathed in and out in a single breath

about 0.5L

35

Inspiratory Resolve Volume (IRV)

additional volume of air taken in with the deepest breath possible

up to 2L

36

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

additional volume of air that can be breathed out if we force it out

up to 1.5L

37

Residual Volume

air remaining in your lungs after a maximum exhalation

about 1.5L

38

Vital Capacity

IRV + TV + ERV

the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled in one breath

39

Complete this air in our lungs diagram

40

Describe what happens to the diaphragm to help a person breath

the diaphragm contracts; moves down/flattens

41

Name A, B and C

42

diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to capillary

higher concentration in alveoli

high to low concentration

concentration lower in capillary

down a concentration gradient

43

What effect would emphysema have on the value of oxygen uptake

lower value of oxygen uptake

44

Suggest how the air this person breathes can be altered to relieve the symptoms of emphysema

the concentration of oxygen is greater when breathed in

use of oxygen cylinder

45

what is inside a cigarette?

cadium (batteries)

staeric acid (candle wax)

nicotine (insecticide)

ammonia (toilet cleaner)

(paint)

methanol (rocket fuel)

carbon monoxide (car exhaust smoke)

tar (road surfaces)

arsenic (poison)

methane (sewer gas)

acetic acid (vinegar)

butane (lighter fluid)

46

what are the short-term effects of cigarette ingredients on the human body?

smelly hair

smelly breath

less oxygen to the brain

stained teeth

more coughs and colds

less oxygen to lungs (shortness of breat)

stained fingers

47

what are the long-term affects of cigarette ingredients on the human body?

gym disease and tooth decay

stroke

mouth and throat cancer

heart disease

heart attack

emphysema

lung cancer

chronic bronchitis

stomach and pancreatic cancer

decreased fertility

peripheral vascluar diease

48

where does tar build up?

in the lungs

49

what causes emphysema and why?

tar

chemicals in tar damage alveoli as the walls inbetween the sacs break down ---> SA reduced ---> less oxygen absorbed

50

what causes lung cancer and why?

tar

tar contains carcinogens

51

what causes lung infections and bronchitis? why?

cilia paralysed so tar and mucus don't move up the throat to be coughed out or swallowed

bacteria reproduce ---> bronchitis

52

what does tar cause?

emphysema

lung cancer

lung infections

bronchitis

53

what is nicotine?

addictive substance in cigarettes

stimulates neurotransmiter in brain leading to more brain activity

54

what does nicotine cause and why?

strokes and heart attacks

constrict arteries reducing blood flow

fat deposited in blood vessels

increased blood pressure

55

what does carbon monoxide cause and why?

tiredness, dizziness, increased heart rate

binds irreversible to heamoglobin ---> reduces oxygen (carrying ability of red blood cells)

reduced birth mass ---> foetus gets less oxygen