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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (55)
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1

trachea

air enters our nose or mouth and passes down the windpipe (trachea)

2

bronchi

(singular = bronchus)

two tubes which split from the tranchea, one which leads to each lung

3

bronchiole

smaller tubes which have been divided from each bronchus

4

alveolus (-i)

micrscopic air sacs where air eventually ends up

here gas exchange with blood takes place

covered in blood capillaries

5

diaphragm

a muscular sheet of tissue

helps air move in and out of lungs

6

pleural membrane

thin moist membranes inside the thorax which surround the lungs

stop lungs sticking to ribs (they are moist)

7

How does amoeba take up oxygen?

(organism found in ponds)

oxygen diffuses through its cell membranes

large SA:V

8

How do lungs take up oxygen? 

lungs have a very large SA

we breath so oxygen can diffuse into our blood

9

What is the function of the respiratory system?

gas exchange

uptake of O2 (for respiration)

release of CO2 (waste product)

10

Label this structure of a respiratory system

11

Label this structure of an alveloi

12

pulmonary

of the lungs

13

vein

towards the heart

14

artery 

away from the heart

15

Label this gas exchange in the alveoli diagram

16

Label this gax echange in one alveolus diagram

17

How big is a blood cell?

approximately 8 µm

18

How big is a blood capillary?

approximately 10 µm

19

What is so special about the size of a blood capillary?

it is extremely small

blood cells have to travel single file and often on their sides because otheriwise they can't fit

this allows diffusion time

20

How is the respiratory system's surface area adapted for efficient gas exchange?

very large surface area (60 cm2)

lots of capillaries - high surface area between capillaries and alveoli

21

How is the respiratory system's concentration gradient adapted for efficient gas exchange?

the air in the aveolus has a higher concentration of oxygen  than the blood entering the capillary network - oxygen diffuses from the air to the blood

there is more carbon dioxide in the blood than there is in the air in the lungs 

the concentration gradient is maintained as blood in constantly moving on - breathing in high concentration of oxygen , moving on and breathing out a low concentration 

diffusion gradient for carbon dioxide is in the opposite direction to that of oxygen

blood which leaves the capillaries and flows back to the heart has gained oxygen and lost carbon dioxide

22

How is the respiratory system's diffusion distance adapted for efficient gas exchange?

very small distance - blood is only seperated by the cells making up the wall of the alveolus and the capillary wall itself

diffusion occurs rapidly

23

How is the respiratory system adapted for efficient gas exchange? (other points)

surfactant and moisture (stops alveolus from sticking together when it contracts)

moisture in surfactant dissolves O2 so it can enter the blood

24

ventilation

breathing in and breathing out

25

Complete this table

26

Label this diagram of ribs

27

Label this diagram of intercostal muscles

28

What happens when you inhale?

diaphragm contacts (flattens)

external intercostal muscles contract

ribcage moves out and upward

volume of chest cavity increases

lungs expand 

pressure inside decreases

air rushes into lungs to equalise pressure

29

What happens when you exhale?

diaphragm relaxes (moves upwards)

internal intercostal muscles contracts

ribcage moves down and inward

volume of chest cavity decreases

lung volume increases

pressure inside lungs increases

air flows out of lungs due to high pressure

30

inhilation

breathing in