Specialised Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Specialised Cells Deck (16):
1

Nerve Cell

Function:
transmits nervous stimuli
Adaption:
synapses and neurotransmitter
can be very long
myelin sheet (insulator)

2

Ciliated Cell

Function:
e.g. clear airways
Adaption:
cilia that beat backwards and forwards to move material
e.g. sweep mucus with trapped dust and bacteria along the throat

3

Sperm Cell

Function:
fertilisation of egg
Adaption:
small with tail for movement
lots of mitochondria
acrosome with enzymes to digest egg membrane
genetic information (23 chromosomes)

4

Egg Cell

Function:
fertilisation
Adaption:
large and bulky
contains yolk
genetic information (23 chromosomes)

5

Red Blood Cell

Function:
transport of oxygen
Adaption:
contains haemoglobin which binds oxygen
no nucleus (more space for haemoglobin)
biconcave shape

6

White Blood cell

Function:
destroy pathogens
Adaption:
some produce antibodies
some have flexible cytoskeleton so that they can change shape quickly to engulf bacteria

7

Muscle Cell

Function:
contraction
Adaption:
long and flexible
lots of mitochondria

8

Fat Cell

Function:
store fat (source of energy)
Adaption:
Little cytoplasm: lots of fat storage space
few mitochondria
can expand (up to 100x)

9

Rods and Cones

Function:
photoreception - vision
Adaption:
contain visual pigment that detects light
many mitochondria
synapse that transmits signals to optic nerve

10

Skin Cell

Function:
protection
heat regulation
Adaption:
pigment to absorb UV
hair for insulation

11

Palisade Cell

Function:
photosynthesis
Adaption:
lots of chloroplasts
tightly packed, elongated

12

Root Hair Cell

Function:
uptake of water and minerals
Adaption:
have root hairs (increases surface area)
large permanent surface
close to xylem (water transport)

13

Guard Cell

Function:
control opening of stomata
Adaption:
take up and release water by osmosis to open and close stomata
thickened cell wall

14

Specialised Cell

a cell that can differentiate into a cell with a role (e.g. blood cell). It can turn DNA on or off. It is the only cell that goes through mitosis

15

Describe the function of the mitochondria and suggest a reason why they are arranged in the filament near the tail of the sperm?

mitochondria release energy in respiration - the energy can quickly get to the tail where the energy is used for swimming

16

Explain the contribution of the sperm nucleus in determining the characteristics of the off spring

DNA determines characteristics. 23 chromosomes containing genetic information are situated in the nucleus, they contribute to half the genetic make up