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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (48):
1

What is the word and chemical equation for respiration?

glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water (+energy)

C6H1206 + 602 ---> 6C02 + 6H2O (+ ATP energy)

2

Write a short description of how the experiment works and how it demonstrates C02 production. (Soda lime absorbs carbon dioxide. An aspirator is a suction pump)

 

 

If there is C02 at A the soda lime absorbs it. This is proven at B as the limewater would not turn cloudy indicating the C02 had been absorbed at A.

No carbon dioxide enters C but the germinating seeds give out C02. This is proven at D as the lime water would turn cloudy.

 

3

Write a short description of how the experiment works and how it demonstrated energy release. 

 

Germinating seeds are alive, boiled seeds are dead

They produce carbon dioxide when alive

The apparatus is left for a couple of days and then the temprature of each flask is measured

The germinating seeds have a temprature of 240 - thermal energy has been increased, respiration has occured

The boiled seeds are still 210, they must be used to prove that they do not respire. They are used to compare

 

 

 

4

which cells would you expect to have a lot of mitochondria

muscle or nerve cells 

they use a lot of energy

5

what does a mitochondrion look like?

6

Where are the enzymes involved in respiration attached to on a mitachondria

to the inner membrane of the mitochondria

7

How is the membrane on a mitachondrion adapted so that the rate of respiration is high?

 

the inner membrane is folded so it then has a large surface area which allows for more enzymes to be attached so there is more respiration

8

does the breathing rate increase or decrease after exercise?

increase

9

does the depth of breaths increase or decrease after exercise?

increase

10

does the heart rate increase or decrease after exercise?

increase

11

what increases after doing exercise?

breathing rate

depth of breath

heart rate

body temprature

12

does the body temprature increase or decrease after exercise?

increase

13

Why does the breathing rate, depth of breath, heart rate and body temprature increase during exercise?

more energy for muscle contraction

you need more oxygen for the muscle cells to respire

need to get rid of C02

14

why does heart rate change during exercise?

the heart needs to pump more oxygen and glucose to the muscles for respiration

more energy for mucle (heart contraction)

oxygenated blood pumped around the body

15

what happens to the amount of blood pumped out by the heart after taking regular exercise over a period of time?

increases

16

what happens to the heart volume after taking regular exercise over a period of time?

increases

17

what happens to the breathing rate by the heart after taking regular exercise over a period of time?

decreases

18

what happens to the pulse rate after taking regular exercise over a period of time?

decreases

19

What decreases after taking regular exersise over a period of time

breathing rate

pulse rate

20

What increases after taking regular exersise over a period of time

heart volume

amount of blood pumped out by the heart

21

Why do breathing and pulse rates drop after taking regular exercise over a period of time?

the person is fitter so their lungs and hearts have expanded so they require less breath and their pulse rates don't need to be so fast

22

What affects do you feel after holding your hand up high and clenching your fist fifty times?

fatigue (muscle fatigue) - lactic acid is changing the pH levels in enzymes so they enzymes can't work as well

tiredness

achy

 

23

what is the word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration?

glucose ---> lactic acid + energy

C6H12O6  ---> 2C3H6O3+ 2 ATP

(don't need to know numbers of ATP)

24

when you finish exercise do you start to respire anaerobically or aerobically?

aerobically

25

what happens when you stop exercising?

you breath more deeply trying to get more oxygen so that your muscles can have more ATP energy

lactic acid + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + 17 ATP energy

aerobic respiration begins immediately after you stop exercising

26

what is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic?

anaerobic = muslces respire - no oxygen

aerobic = oxygen is present

27

what is oxygen debt?

the volume of oxygen needed to completely oxidise the lactic acid that builds up in the body during anaerobic respiration

 

28

when is oxygen debt repaid?

when all of the lactic acid has been metabolised (broken down)

completely repaid at 18 mins of the diagram

starts to be repaid at 7 mins on the diagram (immediately after exercise)

 

29

what is the word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast?

glucose ---> carbon dioxide + ethanol + energy

C6H120---> 2C02 + 2C2H5OH + 2ATP

(don't need to know ATP numbers)

30

what does C02 do to the bread?

makes the holes in the bread

31

what happens to the enzymes when making bread?

they become denatured in the oven due to high tempratures

32

what happens to the alcohol when making bread?

it is burnt off

33

what is the importance of yeast's respiration when making bread?

C02 makes the bread rise and also creates air pcokets in the bread

34

what is the importance of yeast's respiration when making beer and wine?

if you starve yeast of oxygen (anaerobic) then it will produce alcohol

35

what is a substrate?

a substance on which enzymes act

36

explain how starch provides the sugar C6H12O6

starch breaks down to form maltose/maltase

37

energy is ...... in respiration

released

38

which protein is oxygen attached to?

haemoglobin

39

how does oxygen move from the blood to the body?

it diffuses

40

estimate how much water is made during respiration by a person in a day

1 litre

41

name a process that germinating seeds require energy for respiration to do

protein synthesis

enzyme synthesis (e.g. amylase)

DNA synthesis; active transport

mitosis

42

what do boiling seeds do and how do they do this?

kills enzymes by denaturing them

43

name the organelle where aerobic respiration takes place

roughly sketch one of these organelles

mitochondrion

44

is carbon dioxide given off in anaerobic respiration and why?

no

glucose is converted into lactic acid so there is no carbon left to make carbon dioxide

45

why do muscle cells 'prefer' to use aerobic respiration?

more energy is released

46

do a marathon runner or a sprint runner's muscles repsire mostly anaerobically when running?

why?

sprint runner

he is repsiring anaerobically at a very fast rate

the marathon runner must do more aerobic respiration over a period of time

47

what is anerobic respiration in yeast used for?

carbon dioxide for air pockets in bread and to cause bread to rise

alcohol

48

what does it mean if a protein is denatured?

it's structure and function is altered

this can be caused by heat, pH levels or chemical agents