What is the word and chemical equation for respiration?
glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
C6H1206 + 602 ---> 6C02 + 6H2O (+ ATP energy)
Write a short description of how the experiment works and how it demonstrates C02 production. (Soda lime absorbs carbon dioxide. An aspirator is a suction pump)
If there is C02 at A the soda lime absorbs it. This is proven at B as the limewater would not turn cloudy indicating the C02 had been absorbed at A.
No carbon dioxide enters C but the germinating seeds give out C02. This is proven at D as the lime water would turn cloudy.
Write a short description of how the experiment works and how it demonstrated energy release.
Germinating seeds are alive, boiled seeds are dead
They produce carbon dioxide when alive
The apparatus is left for a couple of days and then the temprature of each flask is measured
The germinating seeds have a temprature of 240 - thermal energy has been increased, respiration has occured
The boiled seeds are still 210, they must be used to prove that they do not respire. They are used to compare
which cells would you expect to have a lot of mitochondria
muscle or nerve cells
they use a lot of energy
what does a mitochondrion look like?
Where are the enzymes involved in respiration attached to on a mitachondria
to the inner membrane of the mitochondria
How is the membrane on a mitachondrion adapted so that the rate of respiration is high?
the inner membrane is folded so it then has a large surface area which allows for more enzymes to be attached so there is more respiration
does the breathing rate increase or decrease after exercise?
does the depth of breaths increase or decrease after exercise?
does the heart rate increase or decrease after exercise?
what increases after doing exercise?
depth of breath
does the body temprature increase or decrease after exercise?
Why does the breathing rate, depth of breath, heart rate and body temprature increase during exercise?
more energy for muscle contraction
you need more oxygen for the muscle cells to respire
need to get rid of C02
why does heart rate change during exercise?
the heart needs to pump more oxygen and glucose to the muscles for respiration
more energy for mucle (heart contraction)
oxygenated blood pumped around the body
what happens to the amount of blood pumped out by the heart after taking regular exercise over a period of time?
what happens to the heart volume after taking regular exercise over a period of time?
what happens to the breathing rate by the heart after taking regular exercise over a period of time?
what happens to the pulse rate after taking regular exercise over a period of time?
What decreases after taking regular exersise over a period of time
What increases after taking regular exersise over a period of time
amount of blood pumped out by the heart
Why do breathing and pulse rates drop after taking regular exercise over a period of time?
the person is fitter so their lungs and hearts have expanded so they require less breath and their pulse rates don't need to be so fast
What affects do you feel after holding your hand up high and clenching your fist fifty times?
fatigue (muscle fatigue) - lactic acid is changing the pH levels in enzymes so they enzymes can't work as well
what is the word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose ---> lactic acid + energy
C6H12O6 ---> 2C3H6O3+ 2 ATP
(don't need to know numbers of ATP)
when you finish exercise do you start to respire anaerobically or aerobically?
what happens when you stop exercising?
you breath more deeply trying to get more oxygen so that your muscles can have more ATP energy
lactic acid + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + 17 ATP energy
aerobic respiration begins immediately after you stop exercising
what is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic?
anaerobic = muslces respire - no oxygen
aerobic = oxygen is present
what is oxygen debt?
the volume of oxygen needed to completely oxidise the lactic acid that builds up in the body during anaerobic respiration
when is oxygen debt repaid?
when all of the lactic acid has been metabolised (broken down)
completely repaid at 18 mins of the diagram
starts to be repaid at 7 mins on the diagram (immediately after exercise)
what is the word and chemical equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast?
glucose ---> carbon dioxide + ethanol + energy
C6H1206 ---> 2C02 + 2C2H5OH + 2ATP
(don't need to know ATP numbers)
what does C02 do to the bread?
makes the holes in the bread
what happens to the enzymes when making bread?
they become denatured in the oven due to high tempratures
what happens to the alcohol when making bread?
it is burnt off
what is the importance of yeast's respiration when making bread?
C02 makes the bread rise and also creates air pcokets in the bread
what is the importance of yeast's respiration when making beer and wine?
if you starve yeast of oxygen (anaerobic) then it will produce alcohol
what is a substrate?
a substance on which enzymes act
explain how starch provides the sugar C6H12O6
starch breaks down to form maltose/maltase
energy is ...... in respiration
which protein is oxygen attached to?
how does oxygen move from the blood to the body?
estimate how much water is made during respiration by a person in a day
name a process that germinating seeds require energy for respiration to do
enzyme synthesis (e.g. amylase)
DNA synthesis; active transport
what do boiling seeds do and how do they do this?
kills enzymes by denaturing them
name the organelle where aerobic respiration takes place
roughly sketch one of these organelles
is carbon dioxide given off in anaerobic respiration and why?
glucose is converted into lactic acid so there is no carbon left to make carbon dioxide
why do muscle cells 'prefer' to use aerobic respiration?
more energy is released
do a marathon runner or a sprint runner's muscles repsire mostly anaerobically when running?
he is repsiring anaerobically at a very fast rate
the marathon runner must do more aerobic respiration over a period of time
what is anerobic respiration in yeast used for?
carbon dioxide for air pockets in bread and to cause bread to rise
what does it mean if a protein is denatured?
it's structure and function is altered
this can be caused by heat, pH levels or chemical agents