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Flashcards in The Carbon Cycle Deck (74):
1

what does photosynthesis do to carbon atoms? (carbon cycle)

fixes carbon atoms from carbon dioxide into organic compounds (e.g. glucose)

2

what does feeding do to food chains? (carbon cycle)

passes carbon atoms frm organic compounds along food chains

3

what does respiration produce? (carbon cycle)

produces inorganic carbon dioxide from organic compounds as these are broken down easily to release energy

4

what do dead organic material release? (carbon cycle)

carbon is released during respiration by decomposers

5

when does fossilisation occur? (carbon cycle)

when dead organis matter does not fully decay due to conditions in the soil, leading to fossil fuel formation

6

what does combustion release? (carbon cycle)

releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned

7

complete this carbon cycle diagram

8

name two molecules in plants that contain carbon

starch

glucose

9

the carbon in plants can be released into the air as carbon dioxide

give two ways in which this can happen

respiration

decomposition

10

increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the air can lead to global warming

give six different harmful consequences of global warming

melting ice caps

extinction

climate change

soil erosion

food chain disruption

habitat destruction

11

complete this gap fill:

Many fungi are decomposers and play an important part in the carbon cycle. Decomposition is the ... of dead organisms, or other organic material, such as bread. The process releases inorganic mineral ions, such as ... and ... in the soil. Decomposition also releases a gas called ... into the air. This gas is produced by a process called ... which releases the energy that fungi need to grow. The same gas is taken out of the air by plants and used in a process called ... to make food.

Many fungi are decomposers and play an important part in the carbon cycle. Decomposition is the breakdown of dead organisms, or other organic material, such as bread. The process releases inorganic mineral ions, such as nitrate and phosphate in the soil. Decomposition also releases a gas called carbon dioxide into the air. This gas is produced by a process called respiration which releases the energy that fungi need to grow. The same gas is taken out of the air by plants and used in a process called photosynthesis to make food.

12

what is a decomposer?

an organism that eats dead organism or animal droppings, and breaks them down into simple materials

13

what are the main groups of decomposer?

bacteria and fungi

14

what is decomposition?

the breakdown or decay of  dead organisms, or other organic materials

15

what is the process that allows carbon compounds to leave carnivores and enter the atmosphere?

respiration

16

what is the prcess that takes carbon in the atmopshere into flowering plants?

feeding

17

what is the process that takes carbon from flowering plants into herbivores?

feeding

18

what is the process that takes carbon from herbivores into carnivores?

feeding

19

burning fossil fuels return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

explain how increased use of fossil fuels could affect the environment

increase in greenhouse gases which increases the greenhouse effect

trapped heat in the atmosphere leads to the gradual rise in temperature (global warming)

global warming leads to rising sea levels, melting ice caps, flooding 

this is the result of climate change

20

describe the role of decomposers in the carbon cycle

they break down the remains of dead plants and animals (organisms) releasing carbon dioxide through respiration

this carbon dioixde can then be used in photosynthesis for plants

21

name four carbohydrtes found in plants that contain carbon

starch

glucose

sucrose

cellulose

22

other than fungi and bacteria, what other type of organism is a decomposer?

microorganisms

23

what fixes carbon atoms from carbon dioxide into organic compounds? (e.g. glucose)

photosynthesis

24

what releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned?

combustion

25

what releases carbon from dead organic material during respiration?

decomposers

26

what passes carbon atoms from organic compounds along food chains?

feeding

27

what occurs when dead organis matter does not fully decay due to conditions in the soil, leading to fossil fuel formation?

fossilisation

28

what produces inorganic carbon dioxide from organic compounds as these are broken down to release energy?

respiration

29

what are inorganic nitrogen compounds (3)?

nitrogen in the air

nitrogen in the soil

nitrate in the soil

30

what are organic nitrogen compounds (7)?

amino acids

protein

urea

ammonia

nucleotides

DNA
ATP

31

what is the chemical formula for nitrogen gas?

N2

32

what is the chemical formula for nitrite?

NO2-

33

what is the chemical formula for nitrate?

NO3-

34

what is the chemical formula for ammonia?

NH4-

35

complete this water cycle diagram

36

what is evaporation?

a liquid changing to a gas

37

what is condensation?

a gas changing to a liquid

38

what is precipitation?

rain

39

what is transpiration?

water taken up by the roots of a plant is transported through a plant to the leaves and lost into the air

40

label this nitrogen cycle

41

plants and animals ... fix nitrogen (...) from the air or soil directly

plants and animals cannot fix nitrogen (N2) from the air or soil directly

42

what happens in assimilation? (nitrogen cycle)

plants get some of their nitrogen by absorption of nitrate (NO3-) ions via their roots

43

what happens in feeding? (nitrogen cycle)

animals get all of their nitrogen (already incorporated into organic molecules) by feeding from plants or other animals along a food chain

44

what happens in ammonification? (nitrogen cycle)

decomposition by decomposers of dead plant and animal material produces ammonia (NH4+) from organic compounds

45

what happens in nitrification? (nitrogen cycle)

the ammonia is first oxidised to nitrate and then to nitrite by nitrifying bacteria

nitrogen-fixation - free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil or symbiotic bacteria in root nodules can fix nitrogen (N2) from the air into ammonia (NH4-) which is then used by the bacteria or the symbiotic plant to make amino acids and proteins

46

what happens in denitrification? (nitrogen cycle)

denitrifying bacteria use nitrate in the coil and convert it back into nitrogen

47

what is a symbiotic plant?

two different organisms that live together and help each other

48

why do plants and animals need nitrogen (N)?

to make DNA, proteins, ATP and amino acids

49

what molecule in the atmosphere is nitrogen normall found in?

N2 nitrogen gas (triple covalent bond)

50

amino acids, proteins, urea, ammonia, nucleotides, DNA and ATP are ...

organic nitrogen compounds

51

N2 in the air and soil, nitrate in the soil are ...

inorganic nitrogen molecules

52

what are three ways that atmospheric nitrogen gets into the ground?

bacteria is root nodules or legumes

nitrogen-fixation

lightning

53

what organisms do the nitrogen fixation for plants?

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

54

why don't farmers have to put nitrogen fertilizer on soybeans?

they are legumes and have root nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

55

where do plants get their nitrogen from?

assimilatin of nitrates in the soil

56

where do primary consumers get their nitrogen from?

from feeding on plants

57

where does an animal's or plant's nitrogen go when it dies?

protein in detritus

58

where do secondary consumers get their nitrogen from?

from feeding on primary consumers

59

which organisms convert ammonia to nitrate?

nitrifying bacteria

60

how is nitrogen released into the atmosphere?

denitrification by denitrifying bacteria

61

... --nitrifying bacteria--> ...

ammonia --nitrifying bacteria--> nitrate

62

name the process by which plant roots absorb nitrates

assimilation

63

what are nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

bacteria that can fix nitrogen (N2) from the air into ammonia (NH4-)

64

give two ways by which animals can return nitrogen to the soil

excretion

death

65

explain how bacteria can reduce the availability of nitrate ions to the plants

denitrifying bacteria denitrifies: it takes nitrate from the soil and converts it by denitfrication into the air which is unaccessible to plants

66

what is this process: 

plants get some of their nitrogen by absorption of nitrate (NO3-) ions via their roots

assimilation

67

what is this process: 

animals get all of their nitrogen (already incorporated into organic molecules) by feeding from plants or other animals along a food chain

feeding

68

what is this process: 

decomposition by decomposers of dead plant and animal material produces ammonia (NH4-ammonification) from organic compounds

ammonification

69

what is this process: 

the ammonia is first oxidised to nitrate and then to nitrite by nitrifying bacteria

nitrification

70

what is this process: 

 free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil or symbiotic bacteria in root nodules can fix nitrogen (N2) from the air into ammonia (NH4-) which is then used by the bacteria or the symbiotic plant to make amino acids and proteins

nitrogen-fixation

71

what is this process: 

denitrifying bacteria use nitrate in the coil and convert it back into nitrogen

denitrification

72

what do decomposers do in the nitrogen cycle?

ammonification

73

where is bacteria found in the nitrogen cycle?

soil

74

where is symbiotic bacteria found in the nitrogen cycle?

root nodules