Plant Nutrition II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plant Nutrition II Deck (362):
1

Complete this gap fill:

During photosynthesis ... energy is absorbed by a pigment called ... which can be found in the ... of plant cells. This light energy is then used to convert ... from the soil and ... from the air into a simple sugar called ... . As a by-product of photosynthesis, ... is made.

During photosynthesis light energy is absorbed by a pigment called chlorophyll which can be found in the chloroplasts of plant cells. This light energy is the used to convert water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air into a simple sugar called glucose . As a by-product of photosynthesis, oxygen is made.

2

Is chlorophyll found in chloroplasts or are choloroplasts found in chlorophyll?

chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts

3

Complete this gap fill:

The ... made by photosynthesis is stored in plants in form of ... (which is a large molecule made of thousands of glucose molecules).

The production of ... can be tested using ... solution, which turns from ... to ...

The glucose made by photosynthesis is stored in plants in form of starch (which is a large molecule made of thousands of glucose molecules).

The production of starch can be tested using iodine solution, which turns from orange/brown to blue/black

4

If no photosynthesis has occured, when iodine solution is put on a leaf, what colour will the leaf be? Why?

orange/brown

no glucose or starch is present

5

If photosynthesis has occured, when iodine solution is put on a leaf, what colour will the leaf be? Why?

blue/black

glucose and starch is present

6

How do you carry out the test for starch?

1. remove leaf from plant

2. boil (30 seconds)

3. boil ethanol for 15 minutes to remove colour

4. wash the leaf with cold water

5. add iodine solution

7

What does a leaf-vein cross-diagram look like?

8

Complete this gap fill:

We can test for the requirement of light by ... part of the leaf with foil or card. No ... should be produced in this area and so this area will remain ... when tested with ...

We can test for the requirement of light by covering part of the leaf with foil or card. No starch should be produced in this area and so this area will remain orange/brown when tested with iodine

9

Complete this gap fill:

We can test for the requirement of light by using ... leaves which have no ... in the white areas. No ... should be produced in this area so this area will remain ... when tested with ...

We can test for the requirement of light by using variegated leaves which have no chlorophyll in the white areas. No starch should be produced in this area so this area will remain orange/brown when tested with iodine

10

Complete this gap fill:

We can test for the production of oxygen using a ... plant such as ... . As photosynthesis takes place ... of gas becomes visible. These can be collected in a ... and tested for oxygen with a ... splint.

We can test for the production of oxygen using a water plant such as Elodea . As photosynthesis takes place bubbles of gas becomes visible. These can be collected in a boiling tube and tested for oxygen with a glowing splint.

11

Complete this gap fill:

We can test for the need for carbon dioxide using ... . This traps the carbon dioxide from the ... , so that it is no longer available for .... Leaves cultured in the presence of ... should not turn ... when test for starch using iodine. 

We can test for the need for carbon dioxide using soda lime . This traps the carbon dioxide from the air , so that it is no longer available for photosynthesis. Leaves cultured in the presence of soda lime should not turn blue/black when test for starch using iodine. 

12

Label this leaf cross-section diagram

13

what is the fuction of the waxy cuticle?

waterproof, reduces water loss

14

what is the fuction of the upper epidermis?

protection, lets light through for photosynthesis

15

what is the fuction of the palisade cells?

tightly packed, lots of chloroplasts, high rate of photosynthesis

16

what is the fuction of the spongy cells?

loosely packed, some chloroplasts, some photosynthesis

17

what is the fuction of the air spaces?

provide air channels through leaf for gas exchange

18

what is the fuction of the phloem?

carries dissolved sugar (sucrose) to rest of the plant

19

what is the fuction of the xylem?

carries water and minerals from roots to leaf

20

what is the fuction of the guard cells?

control opening and closing of stomata

21

what is the fuction of the stomata

control gas exchange and water loss from leaf

22

how are leaves adapted to carry out photosynthesis (chlorophyll needed)?

palisade cells are tightly packed, and they contain lots of chloroplasts

upper epidermis lets in lights

leaf has a large SA/V ratio, absorbs lots of light

another layer of cells underneath to get any extra light

23

how are leaves adapted to import raw materials for photosynthesis (water and CO2 needed)?

xylem brings water up from the roots

guard cells open up and CO2 comes in via stomata

air spaces provide channels for CO2 to access palisade cells

24

how are leaves adapted to get rid of photosynthesis waste products (O2)?

oxygen leaves via stomata, opened by guard cells

25

how are leaves adapted to export sugar from photosynthesis to parts of plant that need them (glucose)?

phloem can transport sugar

26

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

waterproof, prevents water loss

waxy cuticle

27

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

protection, lets light through photosynthesis

upper epidermis

28

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

tightly packed, lots of chloroplasts, high rate of photosynthesis

palisade cells

29

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

loosely packed, some chloroplasts, some rate of photosynthesis

spongy cells

30

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

provide air channels through leaf for gas exchange

air spaces

31

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

carries dissolved sugar (sucrose) to rest of the plant

phloem

32

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

carries water and minerals from roots to leaf

xylem

33

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

control opening and closing of stomata

guard cells

34

what is the leaf structure with the following function:

control gas exchange and water loss from leaf

stomata

35

plants, like all living organisms, need to excrete waste products

explain how the excretory product of photosynthesis is removed from the leaf

oxygen (the waste product of photosynthesis), can diffuse via the stomata to exit the leaf

36

explain how the structure of the leaf is adapted for its role as the organ of photosynthesis

lots of chloroplasts to absorb sunlights

large surface area

leaf is thin

upper epidermis let's light through

tightly packed palisade cells use all the light

loosely packed spongy cells absorb all remaining light

guard cells, which control the opening and closing of the stomata, help the intake of carbon dioxide through diffusion

the xylem in the leaf veins tranports water and minerals from roots to leaf

37

what is the use of glucose in plants

photosynthesis

sucrose

starch

lipids

cellulose

amino acids ---> proteins

nucleotides ---> DNA or ATP

chlorophyll

respiration

38

what is sucrose made up of?

glucose and fructose

39

is starch stored in plants? why?

yes

it is insoluble and therefore has no osmotic effect

40

is glucose soluble?

yes

41

does glucose have an osmotic effect?

yes

42

what is a substrate

a molecule upon which an enzyme acts

43

what is the use of glucose?

substrate for respiration

44

what is the use of sucrose?

main sugar carried in phloem, also in nectar

45

what is the use of starch?

storage carbohydrate

46

what is the use of lipids?

components of cell membranes and long-term energy store (seeds)

47

what is the use of cellulose?

components of cell walls

48

what is the use of amino acids?

components of proteins

49

what is the use of nucleotides?

components of DNA

50

what is the use of chlorophyll?

absorption of light in photosynthesis

51

what are the elements of glucose?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

52

what are the elements of sucrose?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

53

what are the elements of starch?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

54

what are the elements of lipids?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

55

what are the elements of cellulose?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

56

what are the elements of amino acids?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

57

what are the elements of nucleotides?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphate

58

what are the elements of chlorophyll?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Magnesium

59

what substance has this use:

substrate for respiration

glucose

60

what substance has this use:

main sugar carried in phloem, also in nectar

sucrose

61

what substance has this use:

storage carbohydrate

starch

62

what substance has this use:

components of cell membranes and long-term energy store (seeds)

 

lipids

63

what substance has this use:

components of cell walls

cellulose

64

what substance has this use:

components of proteins

amino acids

65

what substance has this use:

components of DNA

nucleotides

66

what substance has this use:

absorption of light in photosynthesis

chlorophyll

67

what are the mineral requirements of plants?

nitrogen

magnesium

phosphorous 

68

if a plant has full nutrients, what does it look like?

green, normal growth

69

if a plant is without nitrogen, what does it look like?

stunted growth

yellow leaves

70

if a plant is without magnesium, what does it look like?

yellow leaves

71

if a plant is without phosphorous, what does it look like?

stunted growth

purple leaves

72

why do plants need nitrogen?

to make amino acids, proteins, ATP and DNA

73

why do plants need magnesium?

to make chlorophyll

74

why do plants need phosphorous?

needed to make ATP and DNA

75

Complete this gap fill:

Nitrogen is needed for making ... . These contain the elements H, C, O and ... . Plants need ... to make ... which are required for plant ... . If a plant lacks nitrogen, its growth is ... . The plant might also have ... leaves. 

Nitrogen is needed for making amino acids. These contain the elements H, C, O and N. Plants need amino acids to make proteins which are required for plant growth. If a plant lacks nitrogen, its growth is stunted. The plant might also have yellow leaves. 

76

Complete this gap fill:

Magnesium is needed for making ... . This plays an important part in trapping the ... energy during ... . The colour of this pigment is ... and so the plants that lack ... have ... leaves.

Magnesium is needed for making chlorophyll . This plays an important part in trapping the light energy during photosynthesis . The colour of this pigment is green and so the plants that lack chlorophyll have yellow leaves.

77

Complete this gap fill:

Phosphorous is needed for making ... and ... . If a plant lacks phosphorous its growth is ... similar to when it lacks ... . The plant may also have a ... tinge.

Phosphorous is needed for making ATP and DNA. If a plant lacks phosphorous its growth is stunted similar to when it lacks nitrogen. The plant may also have a purple tinge.

78

how can you increase plant growth and crop yield?

fertiliser -nitrate, phosphate, magnesium

manure

make sure they are in the sun

put them in a green house - can increase the amount of CO2

water them appropriately

79

if a plant has normal growth and green leaves, what nutrients does it lack?

none

it has full nutrients

80

if a plant has normal growth and yellow leaves, what nutrients does it lack?

magnesium

81

if a plant has stunted growth and yellow leaves, what nutrients does it lack?

nitrogen

82

if a plant has stunted growth and purple leaves, what nutrients does it lack?

phosphorous

83

how does water get to leaf cells?

via xylem (roots to leaf)

84

what is chlorophyll for and which elements does it contain?

absorption of light in photosynthesis

C, H, O, Mg

85

how do plants transport sugar and in what from is it transported?

phloem

dissolved sucrose

86

what does ethanol do in a starch test on leaves?

remove the chlorophyll so therefore removes the colour

87

describe an experiment where the rate of photosynthesis could be studied by measuring the volume of O2 given off

pond plant

oxygen collected in a test tube

88

stoma or stomata? when should each word be used?

stoma = singular

stomata = plural

89

how does carbon dioxide get to leaf cells?

diffusion via the stomata, opened by guard cells

air spaces within leaf

90

why do plants store glucose as starch?

starch is insoluble and so has no osmotic effect

91

how and why would you destarch a plant

is starch made in photosynthesis? need to start without starch

deprive it of light (dark room)

92

how and why might you remove CO2 from the air in a photosynthesis experiment?

testing for requirement of CO2 - need start without CO2

soda lime traps CO2 from air

93

what's in a leaf vein?

phloem

xylem

94

what experiment could you do to see if chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis?

variegated leaves - no chlorophyll in the white parts

to see if glucose is made

95

when are the stomata open/closed and why?

always closed at night

open during day - optimum CO2

when CO2 is needed

to excrete O2

closed when really hot as it will lose too much water

 

96

where is there a high and low concentration of oxygen and what effect does this have?

palisade cells

diffusion to outside the leaf

97

where are fats and oils found in plants?

in seeds

98

what elements are found in protein?

C, H, O, N

99

what will plants look like if they don't have enough magnesium? give a reason

yellow leaves

magnesium makes chlorophll which has a green pigment

100

what do plants look like if they do not have enough nitrate?

stunted growth

yellow leaves

101

do spongy mesophyll cells do photoynthesis? give a reason

yes

they have some chloroplasts

102

why pond weed?

testing for requirement of oxygen - easily see and collect oxygen

103

what do plants need to make DNA?

glucose which makes nucleotides which makes DNA

elements of C, H, O, N, PO4

104

if plants do not make glucose into another molecule, what else might happen to the glucose?

used in respiration

105

what do the letters in CORMMS stand for and what are they used for?

designing experiments

Change (i.e. independent variable, values?)

Organism (what will you keep the same about it?)

Repeat (how many?, average)

Measure (dependent variable - what you will measure)

Method (how will you measure equiptment, at what time?)

Standardisation (control variables - what 2 or 3 things will you keep the same?)

106

This water plant grows by increasing the number of its leaves. Many mineral ions help plants to grow. Describe how one named mineral ion helps plants to grow

nitrate, which makes amino acids which then produce proteins, allow the plant to grow as proteins are required for growth

107

describe the role of chloroplats in leaf cells

chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which absorb light in photosynthesis

108

Name the parts labelled A, B and C

A = cell wall

B = permanent vacuole

C = cytoplasm

109

Which of the leaves A to E matches the result you would obtain after testing leaf X and leaf Y for starch?

leaf X = C

leaf Y = A

110

explain what happens in a leaf when it is destarched

the starch is removed

starch has converted into glucose which has been used in respiration to release energy

111

describe how the green pigment in leaf cells is removed safely before testing a leaf for the presence of starch

leaf is removed from blant and then boiled in water for thirty seconds

leaf cells are then boiled in ethanol for 15 minutes in a water bath

112

name the chemical used to test for starch

iodine

113

name the pores labelled in the photographs

stomata

114

describe how the pores change when the plant leaf is exposed to bright light in the mornng

explain how this change benefits the plant

the stomata open when exposed to sunlight because more carbon dioxide will be in the air

plants want carbon dioixde in order to photosynthesis

115

Look at the results for low light intensity

What effect does changing the temperature from 5oC to 45oC have on the rate of photosynthesis?

Explain this effect

effect = the rate of photosynthesis does not change - remains the same

explanation = there is not enough light

116

Look at the results for high light intensity

What effect does changing the temperature from 35oC to 50oC have on the rate of photosynthesis?

Explain these effects

at first, the rate of photosynthesis increases as light energy is converted into kinetic energy for molecular movement

then, the rate of photosynthesis decreases

high temperates (above 35oC) denature enzymes in the plant cells

CO2 levels limited

level of chlorophyl molecules limited

 

117

name four factors that need to be kept the same for any comparison of the results of the investigation to be valid

the size of the plant

same CO2

same species of plant

same mass of plant

118

explain how growing crops in glasshouses can alter the yield of crop

the use of artificial heating = increased rate of photosynthesis

the use of additional carbon dioxide = increased rate of photosynthesis

(control/increased) temperature/ use of heating (during cold months)

(control/increased) light/ extra light (in dark months)

(control/increased) carbon dioxide

fewer pests/easier control of pests

119

as light intensity rises, the rate of photosynthesis ... but eventaully reaches a ... rate

why?

 

as light intensity rises, the rate of photosynthesis increases but eventaully reaches a maximum rate

this is because some other required factor is in short supply

therefore, increasing the light intensity does not affect the rate anymore

120

normally, what is the limiting factor?

carbon dioxide

121

why is carbon dioxide normally the limiting factor?

the plant can only take up CO2 and fix it into carbohydrate at a certain rate

122

if there is both a high light intenisty and CO2 concentration, what may be the limiting factor? why?

temperature

limits the rate of chemical reactions in the leaf

123

what is the rate of reaction at very low temperatures (close to OoC)

slow

124

what happens to the rate of photosynthesis at very high temperatures (close to 35oC)? why?

reduced

enzymes in the plant become denatures

125

what is the rate of photosynthesis affected by

the concentration of CO2

the availability of H2O

the intensity and hours of light

the temperature

126

what can the rate of photosynthesis be limited/reduced by?

the shortage of CO2

the shortage of H2O

the shortage of light

low temperature

127

what is a limiting factor?

any of the factors required for photosynthesis are needed at the same time so they all may be a limiting factor

128

what is the limiting factor in the desert?

water (H2O)

129

what is the limiting factor in the arctic?

temperature

130

what is the limiting factor in the forest?

light

131

what is the limiting factor in the ocean?

CO2

132

can plants use a lot of CO2?

yes

133

Complete this gap fill about increasing light intensity and limiting factors:

at first, ... is the limiting factor: increasing the light intensity ... the rate of photosynthesis

later, e.g. ... becomes the limiting factor: increases the light intenisty ... increases the rate of photosynthesis because there is ... CO2

at first, light is the limiting factor: increasing the light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis

later, e.g. CO2 becomes the limiting factor: increases the light intenisty no longer increases the rate of photosynthesis because there is not enough CO2

134

Complete this gap fill about increasing CO2 concentration and limiting factors:

at first, ... is the limiting factor: increasing the CO2 concentration ... the rate of photosynthesis

later, e.g. ... becomes the limiting factor: increases the CO2 concentration ... increases the rate of photosynthesis because there is ... light due to the time of day

at first, CO2 is the limiting factor: increasing the CO2 concentration increases the rate of photosynthesis

later, e.g. light becomes the limiting factor: increases the CO2 concentration no longer increases the rate of photosynthesis because there is not enough light due to the time of day

135

Complete this gap fill about increasing the temperature and limiting factors:

increasing the temperature ... the rate of photosynthesis because there is more ...

when the temperature gets too heigh, the rate of photosynthesis ... because ... involved in photosynthesis ... (above approx 40oC)

increasing the temperature increases the rate of photosynthesis because there is more energy

when the temperature gets too heigh, the rate of photosynthesis drops because enzymes involved in photosynthesis denature (above approx 40oC)

136

draw the graphs for the rate of photosynthesis under these conditions as light intenisty increases:

1% CO2

2% CO2

0.5% CO2

137

draw the graphs for the rate of photosynthesis under these conditions as light intenisty increases:

20oC

30oC

60oC

 

138

draw the graphs for the rate of photosynthesis under these conditions as light intenisty increases:

20oC, 1% CO2

30oC, 2% CO2

50oC, 0.5% CO2

139

draw a limiting factor graph for increasing the light intensity

140

draw a limiting factor graph for increasing the CO2 concentration

141

draw a limiting factor graph for increasing the temperature

142

What is the plant life cycle?

pollination 

fertilisation

embryo

seeds

seed dispersal

germination

mature flowering plant

143

Label this flower anatomy diagram

144

what is the male part of a flower?

stamen - anther and filament

145

what is the female part of a flower?

carpel- stigma, style, ovary

 

146

lable this male parts of a flower diagram

lable this male parts of a flower diagram

147

lable this female parts of a flower diagram

148

what is the funtion of the petal?

large and powerful to attract pollinators

149

what is the funtion of the anther?

contains pollen grains

150

what is the funtion of the ovule?

will become seeds when they are fertilised

151

what is the funtion of the filament?

hold the anthers in place

152

what is the funtion of the ovary?

where the ovules are

153

what is the funtion of the receptacle?

holds the main parts of the flower in place

154

what is the funtion of the stigma?

a sticky surface for pollen to land on

155

what is the funtion of the sepal?

protects the flower when it is in bud

156

what is the funtion of the style?

provides a path from the stigma to the ovary for the pollen

157

what is pollination?

the transfer of pollen from anther to the stigma

158

what is insect pollination?

transfer of pollen by insects

159

what is wind pollination?

transfer of pollen by wind

160

what is self pollination?

transfer of pollen from flower onto flower on same plant

161

what is cross pollination?

transfer of pollen from flower onto flower on different plant

162

complete this wind pollinated flower diagram

163

what is the difference in petals between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = usually large and brightly coloured

wind = small and green

164

what is the difference in stamen between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = held within the flower

wind = dangle out of the flower

165

what is the difference in scent between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = yes, to attract pollinators

wind = not scented

166

what is the difference in anthers between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = positioned within the flower

wind = held outside the flower so wind blows pollen away

167

what is the difference in flowers between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = in any position on plant

wind = close to the top of the plant so pollen can be blown off

168

what is the difference in stigma between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = sticky/enclosed, usually solid shape with 3-5 lobes, inside flower so insect brushes against it

wind = feathery to catch as much pollen as possible, hangs outside flower

169

what is the difference in pollen between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = small amount (as easily transferred to animal); sticky

wind = large amount (as much is lost in the wind), light (blown away in the wind)

170

what is the difference in nectar between insect pollinated flowers and wind pollinated flowers?

insect = usually contain nectar to attract insects

wind = no nectar as no need to attract insects

171

what is fertilisation?

the fusion of male and female gametes

172

what is Step 1 in fertilisation?

the pollen grain lands on the stigma

173

what is Step 2 in fertilisation?

the pollen grain develops a pllen tube which grows down the style and  makes its way towards the ovary

the nucleus of the pollen grain travels down the pollen tube

174

what is Step 3 in fertilisation?

the pollen nucleus reached the ovary and fuses with the ovule nucleus - forms fertilised egg/zygote

175

what are all the steps of fertilisation?

the pollen grain lands on the stigma

the pollen grain develops a pollen tube which grows down the style and makes its way towards the ovary

the nucleus of the pollen grain travels down the pollen tube

the pollen nucleus reaches the ovary and fuses with the ovule nucleus - forms fertilised egg/zygote

176

what happens in development?

each fertilised ovule develop into a seed containing a plant embryo

the ovary wall sometimes develops into a fleshy fruit (or hard covering in the case of nuts) which surrounds the seeds

177

what is the role of the seed?

contains plant embryo and food store which provides energy for the embryo to grow

178

what is the role of the fruit?

for seed dispersal (e.g. gets eaten by animals)

179

what types of seed dispersal by animals are there?

hitch hikers

take-aways

juicy fruits

180

what happens in seed dispersal by hitch hikers?

hooks catching animal coats

e.g. cleavers

181

what happens in seed dispersal by take-aways?

gets carried away and burried

e.g. nuts

182

what happens in seed dispersal by juicy fruits?

gets eaten and excreted

e.g. berries

183

what types of seed dispersal by wind are there?

helicopters

parachutes

184

what happens in seed dispersal by helicopters?

wings help seed flly away

e.g. sycamore

185

what happens in seed dispersal by parachutes?

catch the wind

e.g. dandelion

186

how are seeds dispersed?

animals

wind

water

plant itself

187

why do seeds need to be dispersed?

for new plants to have enough space, water and light

less competition

188

what types of seed dispersal by water are there?

boats

189

what happens in seed dispersal by boat?

light and waterproof

e.g. coconuts

190

what types of seed dispersal by plant itself are there?

pepperpods

exploders

191

what happens in seed dispersal by pepperpods?

shaken by wind so seeds fall out

e.g. poppy seeds

192

what happens in seed dispersal by exploders?

pods dry and flick seeds out

e.g. bean pods

193

what is germination?

the development of a plant from a dormant seed

194

what are the steps of germination?

seeds take in water

food store breaks down and is used for growth

first root and first leaves appear

seedling starts to grow

195

what conditions are needed for germination?

water - rehydrates seed

temperature - allows enxymes to work better

oxygen - allows respiration to occur (energy for growth)

(light)

196

once leaves begin to appear, what happens to the plant and food store?

the plant does not need to rely upon food store for growth

197

large and powerful to attract pollinators

petal

198

contains pollen grains

anther

199

will become seeds when they are fertilised

ovule

200

holds the anthers in place

filament

201

where the ovules are

ovary

202

holds main parts of flower in place

receptacle

203

a sticky surface for pollen to land on

stigma

204

protects the flower when it is in bud

sepal

205

provides a path from the stigma to the ovary for the pollen

style

206

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

petals = small and green

wind

207

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

nectar = usually contain nectar to attract insects

insect

208

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

scent = yes, to attract pollinators

insect

209

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

stamen = dangle out of the flower

wind

210

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

flowers = in any position on plant

insect

211

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

stigma = feathery to catch as much pollen as possible, hangs outside flower

wind

212

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

pollen = large amount (as much is lost in the wind), light (blown away in the wind)

wind

213

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

nectar = no nectar as no need to attract insects

wind

214

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

pollen = large amount (as much is lost in the wind), light (blown away in the wind)

wind

215

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

stigma = sticky/enclosed, usually solid shape with 3-5 lobes, inside flower so insect brushes against it

insect

216

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

petals = usually large and brightly coloured

insect

217

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

stamen = held within the flower

insect

218

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

anthers = held outside the flower so wind blows pollen away

wind

219

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

flowers = close to the top of the plant so pollen can be blown off

wind

220

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

pollen = small amount (as easily transferred to animal); sticky

insect

221

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

anthers = positioned within the flower

insect

222

is this a wind or insect pollinated flower?

scent = not scented

wind

223

what is the chemical formula for carbonic acid?

H2CO3

224

complete this diagram about monitoring carbon dioxide concentration during photosynthesis

225

high levels of CO2 = ... rate of photosynthesis

high levels of CO2​ = low rate of photosynthesis

226

low levels of CO2​ = ... rate of photosynthesis

low levels of CO2​ = high rate of photosynthesis

227

algae are in the Kingdom ...

algae are in the Kingdom Protoctista

228

algal balls are:

unicellular or consisting of small colonies

plant-like: have chloroplasts and do photosynthesis

229

what factors affect the rate of photosynthesis in algal balls

light intensity

colour of light

number of algae balls

230

what is step 1 in making algal balls?

step 1: mixing the algae with the sodium alginate jelly

 

231

how do you carry step 1 in making algal balls?

pour 5cmof jelly (sodium alginate solution) into a very small beaker

add 5cm3 of concentrated algal cells

stir the mixture with a clean cocktail stick until it is evenly distributed

232

what is step 2 in making algal balls?

making algae balls

233

how do you carry step 2 in making algal balls?

pour the green mixture through an open-ended syringe into a 2% solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2)

swirl the CaCl2 gently as the drops fall through the syringe to form small balls of algae

leave for 10-15 mins in the CaCl2 and then wash the balls with distilled water by usung a plastic strainer

234

what is step 3 in making algal balls?

setting up the experiment

235

how do you carry step 3 in making algal balls?

take several small containers with lids and rinse them with a small volume of hydrogen carbonate indicator

add algal balls to each container and label the container with tiny hand-writing

add a standard volume of indicator to each container and replace the lid

place the containers in different conditions according to your investigation plan until the next lesson

236

what is step 4 in making algal balls?

analysing your results

237

how do you carry step 4 in making algal balls?

compare the colours in your containers with those of the standard buffers

238

how do you make algal balls?

  1. pour 5cm3 of jelly (sodium alginate solution) into a very small beaker
  2. add 5cm3 of concentrated algal cells
  3. stir the mixture with a clean cocktail stick until it is evenly distributed
  4. pour the green mixture through an open-ended syringe into a 2% solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2)
  5. swirl the CaCl2 gently as the drops fall through the syringe to form small balls of algae
  6. leave for 10-15 mins in the CaCl2 and then wash the balls with distilled water by usung a plastic strainer
  7. take several small containers with lids and rinse them with a small volume of hydrogen carbonate indicator
  8. add algal balls to each container and label the container with tiny hand-writing
  9. add a standard volume of indicator to each container and replace the lid
  10. place the containers in different conditions according to your investigation plan until the next lesson
  11. compare the colours in your containers with those of the standard buffers

239

when does respiration happen?

all the time in plants

240

during the day, temperature ... and so the enzymes have ... ... energy (... collisions) and so a ... rate of respiration

during the day, temperature rises and so the enzymes have more kinetic energy (more collisions) and so a highter rate of respiration

241

all living things get ther energy they need from ..., the ... reaction that ... energy from ...

all living things get ther energy they need from respiration, the chemical reaction that releases energy from glucose

242

what releases energy in respiration

glucose

243

if plants stop respiring, what will happen? why?

they will die because they won't have sufficient energy to carry out essential cellular processes (e.g. making new molecules)

244

what is the equation for respiration?

glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide, water + ATP energy

C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy

245

how do animals obtain the glucose needed for respiration?

through nutrition

246

how do plants obtain the glucose needed for respiration?

photosynthesis

247

what is some of the glucose produced in photosynthesus used for?

respiration to release energy needed (e.g. for plant growth)

248

what is the equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water ---(light)--> glucose + oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O ---(light)--> C6H12O6 + 6O2

249

photosynthesis only occurs when?

when plants are in the light

250

does photosynthesis occur all the time?

no

251

in dark conditions does respiration take place?

yes

252

in dark conditions does photosynthesis take place?

no

photosynthesis rate is lower than the rate of respiration

253

in dark conditions what is the overall gas exchange in palisade cells?

O2 taken in

CO2 released

254

in bright light conditions does respiration take place?

yes

255

in bright light conditions does photosynthesis take place?

yes

photosynthesis rare is higher that rate of respiration

256

in bright light conditions what is the overall gas exchange in palisade cells?

O2 released

CO2 taken in

257

in dim light conditions does respiration take place?

yes

258

in dim light conditions does photosynthesis take place?

some

photosynthesis rate equals the rate of respiration

259

in dim light conditions what is the overall gas exchange in palisade cells?

O2 taken in and released

CO2 taken in and released

 

260

what does a graph showing the rate of respiration and the rate of photosynthesis throughtout the day look like?

261

what are compensation points on a graph showing the rate of respiration and the rate of photosynthesis throughtout the day?

where the rate of respiration equals the rate of photosynthesis

262

how are water and mineral ions taken into the roots of a plant?

water is taken up into the root hair cells by osmosis

mineral ions are taken up into the root hair cells by active transport - root hair cells have got many mitochondria to provide energy for this

263

label these root hair cell diagrams

264

how does water transport from the roots to the leaves?

water rises from the roots to the leaves through the xylem vessels by capillary action 

265

what is adhesion?

water molecules are attracted to capillary wall

266

what is cohesion?

water molecules are attracted to each other

267

label this xylem vessel diagram

268

how tall can trees get?

115 metres

269

how does water evaporate from the leaves?

water molecules leave the xylem and enter leaf

water molecules diffuse through spongy cell layer into air spaces

water evaporates through stomata into surrounding air

270

label this diagram of a leaf

271

what is transpiration?

loss of water vapour from the leaves

272

what is the function of stomata?

gas exchange (CO2 in, CO2 out)

transpiration (water out)

273

what are the pros of transpiration?

allows evaporation from leaf, which cools the leaf

274

what are the cons of transpiration?

too much transpiration can dry out the leaf

275

what is the transpiration stream?

a continuos flow of water that has been 'pulled' up the xylem in the stem and roots through transpiration

276

stoma open when water moves into the ... by ....

stoma open when water moves into the guard cells vacuoles by osmosis

277

when/ why does the stoma close? what does it look like?

278

when/ why does the stoma open? what does it look like?

279

how does light effect transpiration and why?

rate of transpiration increases in light as stomata opens in the leaves

280

how does temprature effect transpiration and why?

high temperature = increase in rate of transpiration as water evaporates from the mesophyll cells

281

how does humidity effect transpiration and why?

humid air = decrease in rate of transpiration

dry air = increase in rate of transpiration

if the air around the plant is humid then the diffusion gradient between air spaces in the leaf and the external air decreases

282

how does wind speed effect transpiration and why?

rate of transpiration increases with faster air movements across the surface of the leaf as moving air removes any water vapur which might remain near the stomata this moist air would otherwise reduce the diffusion gradient and slow down diffusions

283

how do plants prevent too much water loss?

closing of stomata

havy a waxy cuticle

stomata only on bottom leaf

wilting

284

what device can you use to measure transpiration?

a potometer

285

how do you measure transpiration?

a potometer is set up with a freshly cut shoot placed in the open end of the tube

he rubber bungs are made air tight using vaseline to prevent evaporation from the potometer

as water movesup through the plant and evaporates via the stomata, the air bubble moves along the scale giving a meausre of water absorbed by the plant over time and hence the transpiration rate

286

label this water cycle diagram

287

which is true?

A = the xylem transports water and dissolved ions, the phloem transports only water

B = the xylem transports water and sugars, the phloem transports dissolved ions

C = the xylem transports sugars and dissolved ions, the phloem transports only water

D = the xylem transports water and dissolved ions, the phloem transports sugars

D

288

the rate of respiration is higher when it is:

A = warm, windy and dry

B = warm, windy and wet

C = cold, windy and dry

D =  warm, still and dry

A

289

water and sugards are transported through plants in the following directions:

A = water upwards and downwards, sugars upwards only

B = water downwards only, sugars upwards and downwards

C = water upwards only, sugar upwards and downwards

D = water upwards and downwards, sugars downwards only

C

290

two useful adaptions are (i) having root hair cells and (ii) having stomata on the lower epidermis of the leaves. Why is this useful?

there is a large SA for absorption of water

reduced exposure to the sun reduces water evaporation from leaves

291

in light, water ... the guard cells, which become ... and ... the stomata

in light, water enters the guard cells, which become turgid and open the stomata

292

what is tropism?

the growth response of a plat to a directional stimulus

293

what is the name of the response to the stimulus: light

phototropism

294

what is the name of the response to the stimulus: gravity

geotropism

295

what is the name of the response to the stimulus: water

hyrdotropism

296

what is the name of the response to the stimulus: touch

thigmo-tropism

297

what is the repsonse of the shoots to light?

grow towards light source (positive phototropism)

298

what is the repsonse of the roots to light?

mostly none or grow away from light (negative phototropism)

299

what is the repsonse of the shoots to gravity?

grow away from direction of gravity (negative geotropism)

300

what is the repsonse of the roots to gravity?

grow towards direction of gravity (positive geotropism)

301

what is the repsonse of the shoots to water?

none

302

what is the repsonse of the roots to water?

some grow towards direction of water (positive hydrotropism)

303

what is the repsonse of the shoots to touch?

some grow towards and bend around support (positive thigmo-tropism)

304

what is the repsonse of the roots to touch?

grow away from object (negative thigmo-tropism)

305

what is auxin?

hormone (plant growth substace) that is responsible for tropism

306

where is auxin produced?

in the tip of the shoot

307

how does auxin control tropism?

produced in the tip of shoot

diffused from the tip to the shoot

destroyed by light

accumulates on the shady side

causes cell elongation which leads to bending of the shoot towards the light

308

what device detects gravity?

a clinostat

309

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

in response to light the shoot grows and bends towards light source

310

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

the tip is needed for growing and bending

(we know, Darwin did not, that the tip is needed for production of auxin)

311

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

bottom of shoot is not needed for growth

312

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

tip is needed to detect light for bending but not for the growing of the shoot

313

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

(the tip is transparent)

light is the stimulus

314

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

a water soluble chemical is involved in bending

chemical is made in tip and diffuses to region below the tip

315

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

bending occurs where chemical has diffused

316

what is the conclusion of this experiment?

bending occurs where chemical has diffused

chemical that diffuses is responsible for bending

317

is the tip needed for growing and bending towards light source?

yes

318

is the bottom of the shoot needed for growth?

no

319

is the tip needed for the growing of the shoot?

no

320

is the tip needed for detecting light?

yes

321

is a water soluble chemical needed for bending?

yes

322

where does bending occur?

where the water soluble chemical has diffused

323

Design an experiment to test the effect of light intensty on the rate of photosynthesis in the water plant Elodea

Change the light intenisty, e.g. 5 different light intenisties in a range 1-5 (independent variable)

Use the same Elodea plant/ Elodea of same age/ Elodea of same mass

Repeat the experiment at each light intenisty 3 times and average results

Measure the volume of oxygen poduced/number of bubbles of oxygen (dependent variable) using a measuring cyclinder or count the bubbles visually (or with a bubble counter)

Keep the temperature the same/ same level of carbon dioxide/ same amount of minerals/ same pH of water (control variables)

324

Name the structures labelled A and B

A = stigma

B = anther

325

Describe the events that follow pollination and how the lead to seed formation

fertilisation follows pollination

fertilisation is the fusion of male and female gametes

first, the pollen grain lands on the stigma

them, the pollen grain develops a pollen tbe which grows down the style and makes its ways towards the ovary

the nucleus of the pollen grain travels down the pollen tube

then, the pollen nucleus reaches the ovary and fuses with the ovule nucleus which forms the fertilised egg

the fertilised ovule then develops into a seed

326

which number labels the anther?

3

327

using the information in the photograph, suggest why this flower does not pollinate itself

the anther and stigma are not close to each other

328

what does the term cloned mean?

genetically identical

329

complete this word fill:

micropropagation is sometimes known as tissue ... . Small peices of plants called ... are grown on nutirent jelly. All procedures must be carried out under ... conditions to make sure that there are no fungi or ... present. The small peices of plants grow because the cells ... and then develop into new plants

micropropagation is sometimes known as tissue culture. Small peices of plants called explants are grown on nutirent jelly. All procedures must be carried out under sterile conditions to make sure that there are no fungi or bacteria present. The small peices of plants grow because the cells divide and then develop into new plants

330

describe two feautures seen in the diagram that show this is a wind-pollinated flow

the stigma is feathery 

the anthers is held outside the flower

331

suggest one way in which the pollen from wind-pollinated flowers is different from the pollen produced by insect-pollinted flowers

pollen grains are light so they can be blown away easily

332

Design an experiment you could carry out to find out if the distance seeds are sown apart affects the growth of the young plants they produce

sow the seeds at different distances apart (independent variable)

use the same species of seed/ same age of seed

repeat the experiment at each distance 3 times and average results

measure the growth of the seeds : height/ length/mass/ number of leaves

measure after a certain period of time, e.g. two months

keep the same light intensity, volume of water, soil, temperature, nutrients, pH

333

explain why the gametes in a single plant are genetically different from each other and also different from the cells in the rest of the plant

gametes are make by meiosis

recombination of alleles mean the number of chromosomes are halved as gametes are haploids

334

suggest one advantage of self-pollination compared with cross-pollination

good chance of pollination as no vector is needed

335

suggest one disadvantage of self-pollination compared with cross-pollination

less variation

336

Name the gas contained in the bubbles

oxygen

337

Suggest how Patrick could change the light intensity in this investigation

change the lamp distance

change the bulb wattage

change the number of lamps

338

Name five variable that Patrick would keep constant

the temperature

the concentration of carbon dioxide

the volume of water

the mass/size/amount of pondweed

the species of pond weed

339

Patrick measured the rate of gas production by counting the bubbles released in a minute. SUggest a more accurate way of measuring the rate of gas production

use a measuring cylinder

340

Suggest and explain how this experiment could be modified to improve the accuracy of the measurements made

control the temperature using a thermostatically controlled water bath/ digital thermometer

use a measuring cyclinder to measure how many bubbles were produced

341

Suggest a hypothesis for Ian's investigation

light intensity affects CO2 levels/ gas exhange/ photosynthesis

342

State the purpose of Tube D in the investigation

to allow valid comparison/to see if indicator changes with no leaf/ colour change is due to leaf. to see if gas exchage happens without the leaf

343

explain the change in colour of indicator in Tube A

more photosynthesis than respiration - less CO2 absorbed

344

explain the change in colour of indicator in Tube B

respiration released CO2, no photosynthesis means no CO2 was absorbed

345

explain the change in colour of indicator in Tube C

respiration equals photosynthesis - same level of CO2

346

explain the change in colour of indicator in Tube D

there was no leaf for respiration or photosynthesis

347

why is limewater not a suitable indictor for an experiment investigating how gas exchange in a plant changes with light intensity

limewater only shows an increase in CO2 and cannot show a decrease in CO2 or the amount of CO2

348

name 9 factors that affect rate of water los from plants

temperature

light intensity

humidity

wind

specied of plant

surface area of leaves

number of leaves

size of leaves

number of stomata

349

What is the shape of the epidermis cells in Leaf A and Leaf B?

Leaf A = regular/ hexagonal/ straight sides/ oval/ round

Leaf B = irregular/ wavy/ curvy/ flaccis/ plasmolysed

350

describe how a potometer is used to measure the rate of water loss

the air bubble moves a distance along the ruler giving a measure of water absorbed by the plant over time which is measured by a timer

351

describe a precaution you should take to make sure a potometer works correctly

make sure it is airtight

352

describe how you could a potometer to show the rate of water loss from a leafy shoot changes with a higher wind speed

place a fan by the leaf and vary the speed by lowering the speed or turning the fan off compared with having the fan on

use the same plant/ leaf area

keep the temperature and light intensity the same

353

describe an investigation you would carry out to find out how temperature affects the rate of transpiration in a leafy shoot

different temperatures (independent variable)

same species / mass / number of leaves

repeat each temperature and calculate an average

measure bubble movement / water uptake / potometer (independent variable)

measure the time taken (independent variable)

same humidity / carbon dioxide / light intesnity/ wind (control variable)

354

what part of the leaf cell is where the food is made?

chloroplast

355

draw a root hair cell

356

how does the shape of a root hair cell help it take in water

long

large surface area

more water can be absorbed

357

describe the process by which water enters a root hair cell

has selectively permeable membrane

water enters root hair cells by osmosis

the root hair cell is hypertonic to the surrounding soil water - this means that it has a lower water potential

water moves from area of high water potential to areas of low water potential

358

the stem and roots of plant respond to the stimulus gravity

describe the responses and suggest how they help plants to survive

the shoots of the plant grow away from the direction of gravity (negative geotropism) which means they have access to light so they can photosynthesis

the roots of the plant gow towards the direction of gravity (positive geotropism) which means they are anchored and can take up water from the soil

359

how is auxin incolved in positive phototropism

auxin accumalates on the shady side and causes cell elongation

360

name three advantages of the seedling toot responding positively to gravity

can obtain water from soil

can obtain mineral and nutrients from soil

anchors plant

361

How do you remember the plant life cycle?

P please = pollination 

F feed = fertilisation

E every = embryo

S single = seeds

S solitary D dog = seed dispersal

G give = germination

M meat = mature flowering plant

362

what is the symbol and word equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water --(light, chlorophyll) --> glucose + oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2