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Flashcards in Inheritance II Deck (132):
1

what is the order of mitosis?

end of interphase

prophase

prometaphase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

(cytokinesis)

2

what is the difference between having cytokinesis in mitosis and not?

interphase to telophase is nuclear division (Mitosis)

interphase to cytokinesis is cell division

3

what are two centrioles called?

one centomere (aster)

4

what happens during the end of interphase?

DNA is already dulpicated

chromosomes are decondesed (unravelled)

5

what happens during prophase?

chromosomes condense and become visible

centromes seperate and begin to form spindle

- centrioles make spindle fibres

6

what happens during prometaphase?

nuclear membrane breaks down

chromosomes attach to spindle fibres

7

what happens during metaphase?

chromosomes line up at the equator of the spindle

8

what happens during anaphase?

centromeres split and chromatids are pulled to the poles of the cell

9

what happens during telophase?

nucleae membranes reform 

a furrow starts to divide the cytoplasm

10

what happens during cytokinesis

follows mitosis

chromosomes decondense (unravel)

nuclear membranes full formed

division of cytoplasm is complete

two genetically identical daughter cells made

11

label this end of interphase diagram

12

label this prophase diagram

13

label this prometaphase diagram

14

label this metaphase

15

label this anaphase diagram

16

label this telophase diagram

17

label this cytokinesis diagram

18

what is the point of mitosis?

make new cells to replace dead/damaged cells (i.e. repair)

to make new cells grow

19

where in the body does mitosis happen and which cells are involved?

mitosis occurs in all tissues of the body

some aread have a high rate of mitosis - skin, blood (red blood cells live for about 3 months), intestine cells (cells lining villi)

some areas have a very low rate of mitosis - neurones

20

complete this diagram to show the chromosomes in each daughter cell

what is the diploid number of the parent cell?

diploid number of parent cell = 4

21

how does the increase in temperature affect thetime taken for cell division to occur?

the time taken decrease

22

starting with one cell at 250, how many cells would there be after:

2 hours

8 hours

2 hours = 2

8 hours = 16

23

how many sets of chromosomes does a diploid have?

2

24

how many sets of chromosomes does a haploid have?

1

25

what are haploids?

egg or sperm

26

why is meisos needed when we make gametes?

making gametes (haploid - 23 chromosomes) from diploid cells (46 chromosomes)

27

complete this diagram of how to make gametes

28

what is the order of meisos?

interphase 1

prophase 1 and prometaphase 1

metaphase 1

anaphase 1

telophase and cytokinesis 1

prophase 2 and prometaphase 2

metaphase 2

anaphase 2

telophase and cytokinesis 2

 

 

29

what happens during interphase 1?

chromosomes duplicate (interphase)

30

what happens during prophase 1 and prometaphase 1?

prophase 1:

 chromosomes condense and become visible

chromosomes pair up (in homologous pairs)

crossing-over of DNA occurs

prometaphase 1:

nuclear membrane breaks down

spindle beings to form

31

what happens during metaphase 1?

chromosomes pairs align on equator of spindle

chromosomes independantly assorted on spindle (randomly placed)

32

what happens during anaphase 1?

spindle fibres contract, pulling homologous chromosomes to poles of cell

33

what happens during telophase 1 and cytokinesis 1?

telophase 1:

nuclear membrane reform

cytokinesis 1:

furrow forms and seperates the two daughter cells

34

what happens during prophase 2 and prometaphase 2?

prophase 2:

chromosomes are already condensed

prometaphase 2:

nuclear membranes break down

spindles begin to form

35

what happens during metaphase 2?

chromosomes align at equator of spindle

(the difference between metaphase 2 and mitosis is that crossing-over has occured)

36

what happens during anaphase 2?

spindle fibres contract pulling the chromatids to the poles of the cell

37

what happens during telophase 2 and cytokinesis 2?

telophase 2:

nuclear membranes form

chromosomes decondense

cytokinesis 2:

furrows seperate 2 x 2 daughter cells

4 haploid cells have been produced

38

label this interphase 1 diagram

39

label this prophase 1 and prometaphase 1 diagram

40

label this metaphase 1 diagram

41

label this anaphase 1 daigram

42

label this telophase 1 and cytokinesis 1 diagram

43

recall the prophase 2 and prometaphase 2 diagram

44

recall the metaphase 2 diagram

45

label this anaphase 2 diagram

46

label this telophase 2 and cytokinesis 2 diagram

47

what is chiasmata?

sites of crossing over

48

how is cell division 2 different to cell division 1?

genetically identical daughter cells are not made in cell division 2 because of crossing over

49

what happens as a result of crossing over?

chromosomes are recombinant due to crossing over

50

what happens as a result of independant assortment?

each new cell has a mixture of paternal and maternal chromosomes

51

what is the result of meiosis?

4 haploid cells, each with ie set (23) of chromosomes

the 4 new cells are not genetically identical

52

where does mitosis take place?

whole body

53

where does meiosis take place?

ovaries

testes

54

how many rounds of cell division are there in mitosis?

one

55

how many rounds of cell division are there is meiosis?

2

56

what happens to the chromosome number in mitosis?

stays the same 

46 --> 46

57

what happens to the chromosome nmber in mieosis?

halved

46 --> 23

58

are parents and daughter cells genetically identical in mitosis?

yes

59

are parents and daughter cells genetically identical in meiosis?

no

60

are daughter cells identical in mitosis?

yes

61

are daughter cells identical in mieosis?

no

62

are cancer cells mitosis or meiosis?

mitosis

63

are cells in the testes forming sperm mitosis or meiosis?

meiosis

64

are cells in the lining of the small intestine to replace lost cells mitosis or meiosis?

mitosis

65

are the cells in the bone marrow dividing to form red and white blood cells mitosis or meiosis?

mitosis

66

are cells in anther of a flower diving to form pollen mitosis or meiosis?

meiosis

67

is a zygote dividing to form an embryo mitosis or meiosis?

mitosis

68

is this mitosis or meiosis? why?

meiosis

chromosomes have halved

69

is this mitosis or meisis? why?

mitosis

chromsmes have stayed the same

70

what is variation?

(small) differences between members of the same species

71

what is genetic variation?

differences caused by genes inherited from parents

72

what is environmental variation?

differences caused by the environment

73

complete this genetic variation tree diagram

74

each homologous chromosome has the same ............... 
 

(e.g. ....)

type of genes

(e.g. both have genes for eye colour, earlobe, shape etc...)

75

chromosomes from father and mother might have different ...........

(e.g. ....)

versiones of genes ( = alleles)

(e.g. alleles for brown or blue eyes)

76

some alleles are ..... and over other alleles (e.g. the "brown eye" allele is ...... over the "blue eye" allele)

dominant

dominant

77

in humans, how many chromososmes are from the mother and how many are fro the father?

23 chromosomes from mother

23 chromosomes from father

78

allele

a version of a gene

79

dominant allele

only 1 copy is necessary for characteristic to be shown

80

recessive allele

2 recessive alleles are needed (no dominant allele present) for characteristic to be shown

81

genotype 

the genetic make-up

i.e. which alleles are present

82

homozygous

having 2 identical alleles

83

heterozygous

having 2 different alleles

84

phenotype

the characteristic that is shown

85

co-dominant

both alleles contribute to the phenotype, so that both characteristics are present at the same time

86

which is dominant and which is recessive?

"brown eye" allele

"blue eye" allele

"brown eye" allele is dominant

"blue eye" allele is recessive

87

which is dominant and which is recessive?

"unnatached earlobe" allele

"attached earlobe" allele

"unnatached earlobe" allele is dominant

"attached earlobe" allele is recessive

88

which is dominant and which is recessive?

"non-tongue rolling" allele

"tongue rolling" allele

"tongue rolling" allele is dominant

"non-tongue rolling" allele is recessive

 

89

which two chromosomes do women give and which two do men give?

women = XX

men = XY

90

if one parent has the "brown eye" allele and one has the "blue eye" allele then what colour eyes will their offsrping have? why?

brown eyes

this is the dominant allele

91

is both parents have the attached ear lobe allele then what type of ears will their offspring have? why?

attached

although it is recessive it is the only allele available

92

if the father gives an X chromosome then what sex will the child be? why?

female (XX)

XX is the only available option as the mother also gives X

93

if the father gives a Y chromosome then what sex will the child be? why?

male (XY)

the mother gave an X and the father gave a Y

94

if a white feather allele chicken mates with a black feather allele chicken then what colour will their offspring be? why?

speckled (black and white)

co-domincance

95

if the mother gives a haemoglobin allele and the father gives a sickle haemoglocin allele then what will their offspring have? why?

normal and sickle red blood cells

co-dominance

96

which blood groups are co-dominant and which are recessive?

blood group A and B are co-dominant and blood group O is recessive

97

if the mother is blood group A and the father is group A then what blood group will their offspring be?

blood group A

98

if the mother is blood group B and the father is group B then what blood group will their offspring be?

blood group B

99

if the mother is blood group A and the father is group B then what blood group will their offspring be?

 blood group AB

100

if the mother is blood group O and the father is group O then what blood group will their offspring be?

blood group O

101

if the mother is blood group O and the father is group B then what blood group will their offspring be?

blood group B

102

if the mother is blood group A and the father is group O then what blood group will their offspring be?

blood group A

103

complete this blood group chart

104

what is a punnett square?

a diagram showing a genetic cross

105

which allele is represent in lower case and which with upper case?

dominant = upper case

recessive = lower case

106

complete this punnett square

107

complete this punnett square

108

complete this punnett square

109

how do you set out a genetic cross?

110

111

QUESTION

probability is zero

both parents must be DD

dd parents are sterile

neither parent has d/ recessive allele

(ignore the term 'gene')

112

113

114

the symptoms of hungtington's disease doesn't appear until middle age (around 40)

suggest why this makes it unlikely that the disease will every disappear from the population

 

would already have children/ gene already passed on

didn't know they were carriers of the disease

115

116

which part of the cell contains genetic information?

nucleus / chromosomes

117

name the molecule that genetic material is made from

DNA

118

a pregant woman asked her doctor about the chances of her baby being a boy

the doctor said there was an equal chance of the baby being a boy or girl

complete a genetic cross to explain why the doctor said this

119

what did Gregor Mendel discover about inheritance?

characteristics have a genetic ratio of 3:1

120

what is a Pedigree Tree?

a family tree that records and traces the occurence of a characteristic in a family

121

what is a mutation?

changes in the order of bases in the DNA

122

what is mutagen?

an agent that causes mutations

123

what is a genetic disease?

a condition or illness caused by mutations in genes or chromosomes

124

are all mutations changes in the proteins made?

no

there can be silent mutations

125

what is a chromosome mutation?

a change in the number of chromosomes

126

most mutations are ...

some mutatins are ...

very few mutations are ...

most mutations are harmful

some mutatins are neutral

very few mutations are beneficial

127

what can mutations give rise to and what are some examples of this?

genetic diseases

e.g. albanis, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease, Methemoglobinemia, sickle cell anaemia, achondroplasia, colour blindness, haemophilia

128

give some examples of causes of mutations

ionizing radiation - X ray, UV, gamma rays

chemicals - tabacco smoke

viruses

errors in mitosis and meisos

129

can dominant alleles be rare and recessive alleles be common?

yes

130

complete this genetic variation/mutations tree

131

complete this eye colour pedigree tree

132

complete this tongue rolling pedigree tree