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Flashcards in European History SG - The Congress of Vienna Deck (51):
1

When did it take place? What countries were involved? What was their goal?

1815, Quadruple Alliance (Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) + France, re-establishing order by undoing French Revolution

2

Who was Klemens von Metternich?

leader of Congress of Vienna, Austrian foreign minister (most important figure in Europe), "Coachman of Europe", "Age of Metternich"

3

How did the Conservatives seeks to create stability?

instigated tradition, institutions, and aristocracy, rejected liberal reform, popular gov't, and nationalism

4

What changes did the Congress bring about?

France: restored to 1792 boundaries, Bourbons (aristocracy) restored
Russia: gained Polish territory
German Confederation: association of German states (replaced HRE) 300 - 39 states

5

What two ideas were behind new revolutions?

liberalism (increased rights/liberties) and nationalism (freedom from foreign rule)

6

Where were revolutions successful? Where did they fail?

Greece, Belgium, and France/Spain, Italy, Poland, Germany, and Austria

7

When did France experience its next two revolutions? What rulers were forced out of power and who was put in?

July 1830 and 1848, Charles X then Louis-Philippe then Napoleon III

8

What is Russification and who advocated it?

Czar Nicolas l, common culture for Polish and Russians that promoted nationalism

9

Explain how the Crimean War was an example of Europeans trying to maintain a balance of power in Europe.

-Russia wanted to expand its borders by taking Turkey (weak and corrupt gov't) but Britain opposed this bc it disturbed the balance of power, Napoleon = boosted prestige, Italian kingdom of Sardinia = gaining support for Italian unity

10

Who was Florence Nightingale?

-modern nursing profession, led 38 nurses Crimean War, sacrificed her own health, 1st woman = British Order of Merit

11

Giuseppe Mazzini

created patriotic society called Young Italy (wanted Italian unification)

12

Count Camillo di Cavour

prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, joined Crimean War, gains Lombardy w/ France

13

Guiseppe Garibaldi

Red Shirts - wanted Italian unification, invaded Naples and Sicily, discouraged to take Rome

14

When did Italy finally unite? Who was their first king? What two regions were the last to join, and in what year?

1861, Victor Emmanuel II, Venetia and Rome, 1870

15

Who was Otto von Bismarck, and what kind of a man was he? What important political change was he most interested in pursuing?

-crafty and opportunistic Prussian
-wanted German unification through "the politics of reality" (realpolitik), practical way to unity of Germany = blood and war

16

When did Germany unify?

1871

17

Who was Wilhelm I?

first emperor of the German Reich (empire)

18

What event in his early life shaped Marx's view of religion?

father converted to Lutheranism

19

Name Marx's major writings. What are they about?

-the Communist Manifesto (difference in social classes should be leveled out, advocated communism)
-Das Kapital (larger, criticism of capitalism and argument for communism, outline for revolution)

20

What is Marx's "Labor Theory of Value," and how does it differ from the capitalist theory of value?

-worth of man-made object determined by amount of labor that went into its creation
-what people are wiling and able to pay for product

21

bourgeoise and proletariat

upper and lower/working class

22

According to Marx, how did the Industrial Revolution create alienation?

competition kept community from interacting and unifying
-rich get richer when the poor get poorer

23

How would the proletariat achieve equality?

-revolting - seize means of production
-things going they way they were would just bring about more oppression

24

What did Marx say about religion?

-view of religion determined by class
-makes you feel good (higher purpose and afterlife)
-okay for proletariat to suffer in return for heavenly reward, advantage of bourgeoise

25

5 communist countries

Cuba, Russia, North Korea, Eastern Germany, and China

26

Darwin's major writings

-On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (natural selection is the mechanism by which new species arise)
-Descant of Man (human evolution - morality and religion evolve with them)

27

natural selection

-competition for survival in environment (survival of the fittest)
-those with advantageous traits live and reproduce while others die off
-pass in genetic traits to the next generation

28

macroevolution

how species change over long periods of time, developing new species through slow, continuous, and small changes (originating from common ancestor)

29

methodological naturalism, when is it ok?

-no supernatural intervention, explains things only by natural/material means, we only investigate things on the premise that God created, but we seek info to further acknowledge His power

30

difference between theistic evolution and creationism

TE: reconcile Darwin's theory w/ Bible - first chapters of Genesis are figurative, God used evolution as tool
C: God created in 7 days each according to its own kind

31

problems did Darwinism raise about human dignity

-not made in God's Image, accidental, why should we treat each other with respect? survival of the fittest morality = only set or rules that helps society

32

Rococo

"nobles at play," light-colored pastels, puttis

33

Neo-Classical

classical heroes, classical virtues of self-sacrifice and devotion to the state, Greek ideals of restraint, simplicity, and symmetry, contrast of light and dark

34

Romanticism

emotion (reject reason, stressed intuition), past (medieval period for heroes, events, and MYSTERIES) and nature

35

realism

realistic, highlighting the common place, "naturalism," the virtues and dignity of the working-class, earthy tones

36

Antoine Watteau

rococo

37

Francois Boucher

rococo

38

Jean-Honore Fragonard

rococo

39

Clodion

rococo

40

Johan Michael Fischer

rococo

41

Jacques-Louis David

neo

42

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

neo

43

Jean-Antoine Houdon

neo

44

Jacques-Germain Soufflot

neo

45

John Constable

rom

46

J.M.W. Turner

rom

47

Theodore Gericault

rom

48

Caspar David Friedrich

rom

49

Jean-Francois Millet

realism

50

Gustave Courbet

realism

51

Honoré Daumier

realism