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Flashcards in FARR2 Deck (118)
1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thromobosis)

2

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hypercholesterolemia (dec. LDL receptor)

3

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotnesion, DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

4

Anterior drawer sign" +"

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

5

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)

6

Athlete with polycythemia

secondary to EPO injection

7

Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

Pott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)

8

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis (non-caseating granuloma)

9

Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta (defect type I collagen)

10

Bluish gingival line

Burton's line (lead poisoning)

11

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

Paget's disease of bone (inc. osteoblast and osteoclast activity)

12

Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing

Aortic Regurgitation

13

Butterfly facial rash, and Raynaud's phenomenon in young female

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

14

Cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)

Neurofibramotisis type 1 (+pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

15

Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signal mutation)

16

Calf psudohypertrophy

Muscular dsytrophy (mainly Duchenne's); recessive X-linked deletion of dystrophin gene

17

Cherry red spot on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemman-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

18

Chest pain on exertion

Angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimum exertion) (Heibel: progressive worsening = unstable)

19

Chest pain, pericaridal effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

20

Child using arms to stand up from squatting position

Gower's sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

21

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body

Slapped cheeks (erythema infectiousum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

22

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntingon's disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

23

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

24

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

25

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Internuclear opthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral (multiple sclerosis), unilateral (stroke)

26

Continuous machine-like" heart murmur"

PDA (closed with indomethacin; open or maintain with misoprostol)

27

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedma (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease (pretibial)

28

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi Sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

29

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Kussmaul respirations (diabetic ketoacidosis)

30

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (nicacin (Vitamin B3) deficiency)

31

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition

Wet beriberi (thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency)

32

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

33

Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

Sjogren syndrome (autoimmunedestruction of exocrine glands)

34

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

35

Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (collagen type 3 defect)

36

Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node

Virchow node (abdominal metastasis)

37

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or Sezary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood)

38

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

39

Fat, Female, Forty, and Fertile

Cholelithiasis (gallstone)

40

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphillis

Jarish- Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

41

Fever, cough, conjuctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

Measles

42

Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symtoms (staging) of lymphoma

43

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronie disease (connective tissue disorder)

44

Gout, intellectual disability, self mutilating behavior in a boy

Lesch-Nyan syndrome (HPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

45

Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)

46

Hamartomous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands

Peutz-Jeghers synderome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowl obstruction; Inc. cancer risk, mainly GI)

47

Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurological symptoms

Gaucher disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

48

Herditary nerphritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport syndrome (mutation in type 4 collagen)

49

Hyperphagia, hypersexualtiy, hyperorality, hyperdocility

Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

50

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign positive

UMN damage

51

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations

LMN damage

52

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

Blue Bloater" (chornic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)"

53

Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Nonpainful: chancre (primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum), Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

54

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

55

Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration

Niemman-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

56

Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease (glucose-6- phosphate deficiency, more severe)

57

Infant with microcephaly, rocker botom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)

58

Jandince, palpable distended nontender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of biliary tree)

59

Large rash with bull's eye appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (lyme disease: Borrelia)

60

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

61

Male child, recurrent infection, no mature B cells

Bruton disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

62

Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time

Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)

63

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension

Beck triad of cardiac tamponade

64

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth

Gardner syndrome (subtype of FAP)

65

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance

Pompe disease (lysosomal ?-1,4 glucosidase deficiency)

66

Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk of C5-C6 brachial plexus injury: waiter's tip")"

67

No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance

Sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)

68

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear opthalmoplegia

Multiple sclerosis

69

Oscillating slow/fast breathing

Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or increased intracranial pressure)

70

Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infecious mononucleosis)

71

Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes

Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasms in extremities)

72

Painful, raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes

Osler nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)

73

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/microabcesses)

74

Painless jaundice

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct

75

Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child), hematuria

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affect skin and kidneys)

76

Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors

MEN I (autosomal dominant)

77

Periorbital and or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholestrolemia

Nephrotic syndrome

78

Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation

Pink Puffer" (emphysema: centriacinar (smoking), panacinar (?1-antitrypsin deficiency))"

79

Polyuria, renal tubular acidosis type II, growth failure, electolyte imbalances, hypophosphatemic rickets

Fanconi syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

80

Pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6P's)

Lichen planus

81

Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis

Horner syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

82

Pupil accomodates but doesn't react

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)

83

Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/ URI

Guillain-Barre syndrome (acute automimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

84

Rash on palms and soles

Coxsackie A, 2* syphilis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

85

Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE

Hyper- IgE syndrome (Job syndrome: neutrophils chemotaxis abnormality)

86

Red currant jelly" sputum in alcoholics or diabetic patients"

Klebsiella pneumoniae

87

Red currant jelly" stools"

Acute mesenteric ischemia (adults), intussception (infants)

88

Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola

Paget disease of the breast (sign of underlying neoplasm)

89

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

90

Renal cell carcinoma (b/l), hemagnioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytomas

von-Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

91

Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability

Parkinson disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

92

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

93

Severe jaundice in neonate

Crigler-Najjar syndrome 1 (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

94

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ

Rovsing sign (acute appendicitis)

95

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney's sign (acute appendicitis)

96

Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)

97

Single palmar crease

Down syndrome

98

Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility

Kartagener syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

99

Skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, fatigue

Addison disease (primary adrenocortical insufficiency causing increased ACTH, and increased a-MSH production)

100

Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys

Becker muscular dystrophy (X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)

101

Small, irregular red spots on buccal/ lingual mucosa with blue white centers

Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)

102

Smooth, flat, moist, painless white lesions on genitals

Condylomata lata (2* syphilis)

103

Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails

Bacterial endocarditis

104

Strawberry tongue""

Scarlet fever, Kawaskai disease, toxic shock syndrome

105

Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

106

Sudden swollen/painful big toe join, tophi

Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)

107

Swollen gums, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae

Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

108

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP (Bouchard nodes), DIP (Heberden nodes))

109

Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)

Aortic Valve Stenosis

110

Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma

MEN - 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

111

Thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis

MEN - 2B (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

112

Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape

Babinski sign (UMN lesion)

113

Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead

Facial nerve (LMN CN VII palsy)

114

Urethritis, conjuctivitis, arthritis in male

Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27

115

Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)

Hemangioma (benin, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

116

Vomiting blood following gastroesophageal laceration

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

117

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy

Whipple disease (Tropheryma whipplei)

118

Worst headache of my life""

Subarachnoid hemorrhage