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Flashcards in FARR4 Deck (134)
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (increased intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in slouging of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn's)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

3* syphilis (syhpilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia, and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobing S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumonia

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E.coli (newborns), S. pnuemoniae/N.meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac 1* tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (non-bacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, 1* myxoma (4:1 left:right atrium ball and valve")"

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal women; type II: elderly women or man)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbulirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrom (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD> RCA> LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/ hypothyroidism

35

Cushing syndrome

* Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy), * Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol), * ACTH- secreting pituitary adenoma, * Paraneoplastic Cushing (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (world wide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common world wid)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

52

Helminth infection (US)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

53

Hematoma- epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma- subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

55

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, bronze diabetes" and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma"

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

58

HLA - B27

Ankylosing spondylitis

59

HLA - DR3 or DR4

Diabetes mellitus type I, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

60

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurg, mitral regurg

61

Hypercoagulability, enothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis

62

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

63

Hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

64

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

65

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

66

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staph aureus, E coli, Aspergillus (catalse positive)

67

Kidney stones

1. Calcium=radiopaque, 2. Struvite (ammonium)=radiopaque (formed by urease positive organisms such as Proteus vulgarus or Staphylococcus), 3. Uric acid=radiolucent

68

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L-->R becomes R-->L)

Eisenmnger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

69

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

70

Lysosomal Storage Disease

Gaucher's disease

71

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

72

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

73

Malignant skin tumor

basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)

74

Mental retardation

1. Down syndrome, 2. Fragile X

75

Metastases to bone

Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney

76

Metastases to brain

Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI

77

Metastases to liver

Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast and lung carcinomas

78

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and female, inherited through females only

79

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

80

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

ALS

81

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

82

Neoplasms (kids)

1. ALL, 2. Cerebellae medulloblastoma

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

MInimal change disease (asociated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hyogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Oppurtunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystitis jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, b/l)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patients with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult>60, AML: adult ~65, CML: adult 30-60

99

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl fusion)

CML (may be associated with ALL/AML)

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic acidophilic" adenoma"

102

1* amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

103

1* bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

104

1* hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

1* hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

106

1* liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, a1-antitrypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

increased ventricular filling (L-> R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure {CHF})

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

2* hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfection with gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor in infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastomas (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

131

Type of non-hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate (pregnant women at high risk, body stores 3-4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)