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Flashcards in resp.pharm Deck (57)
1

what are the H1 blockers?

reversible inhibitors of H1 histamine receptors

2

what are the 1st generation H1 blockers

diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine

3

what are the clinical uses of 1st gen H1 blockers

allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid

4

what is the toxicity associated with 1st gen H1 blockers

sedation antimuscarinic, anti-alpha adrenergic

5

what are the 2nd generation H1 blcokers

loratidine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, ceterizine

6

what are the clinical uses of 2nd gen H1 blockers

allergy

7

what is the toxicity associated with 1st gen H1 blockers

far less sedating than 1st gen because of decreased entry into CNS

8

what are the expectorants?

guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine

9

what is guiafenesin?

expectorant that things respiratory secretions but does nto suppress cough reflex

10

what is N-acetylcysteine

mucolytic - loosesn mucous plugs in CF patients. Used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose

11

what is dextromethorphan?

antitussive. Antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors. Synthetic codeine analod that has mild opioid effects when used in excess.

12

how do you treat dextromethorphan overdose?

naloxone. {Mild abuse potential}

13

MOA of pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine

sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nonprescription nasal decongestants

14

what is the clinical use of pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine

reduce hyperemia, edema and nasal congestion
open obstructed eustachian tubes

15

what is the toxicity of pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine

hypertension. Can cause CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephedrine)

16

what are the two pathways leading to bronchoconstriction in asthma?

inflammatory and parasympathetic tone

17

what are the types of asthma drugs?

beta 2 agonists, methylxanthines, muscarinic agonists, corticosteroids, antileukotrienes, omalizumab, methacholine, bosentan

18

what beta 2 agonists are used to treat asthma?

albuterol, salmeterol, formoterol

19

what drugs are methylxanthines?

theophylline

20

what muscarinic antagonists are used to treat asthma

ipratropium, tiotropium

21

what corticosteroids are used to treat asthma?

beclomethasone, fluticasone

22

what antileukotrienes are used to treat asthma?

montelukast, zafirlukast, zileuton

23

what does albuterol do?>

relaxes bronchial smooth muscles (b2). Use during acute exacerbation

24

what do salmeterol and formoterol do?

long acting agents for prophylaxis. Adverse effects are tremor and arrhythmias

25

what does theophylline do?

bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase --> increased cAMP levels due to decreased cAMP hydrolysis. The usage is limited because of narrow theraputic index (cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity), metabolized by cP450. Blocks actions of adenosine

26

what does ipratropium do?

competive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchocontstriction. Used for COPD, as is tiotropium, a long acting muscarinic antagonist

27

what do beclomethasone and fluticasone do?

inhibit the synthesis of all cytokines
inactivate NF-kb which no longer induces production of TNFa and other inflammatory agents. 1st line for chronic asthma

28

what do montelukast and zafirlukast do?

block leukotriene receptors, especially for aspirin induced asthma

29

what does zileuton do?

5 lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor that blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes

30

what does omalizumab?

monoclonal anti-IgE Ab. Binds unbound serum IgE and blocks binding to FceRI. Used in allergic asthma resistant to inhaled steroids and long acting beta2 agonists

31

what does methacholine do?

muscarinic receptor antagonist. Used in bronchial provocation challenge to help diagnose asthma

32

what does bosentan do?

used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Competitively antagonises endothelin-1 receptors, decreases pulmonary vascular resistance

33

diphenhydramine

1st gen H1 blocker

34

dimenhydrinate

1st gen H1 blocker

35

chlorpheniramine

1st gen H1 blocker

36

loratadine

2nd gen H1 blocker

37

fexofenadine

2nd gen H1 blocker

38

desloratadine

2nd gen H1 blocker

39

cetirizine

2nd gen H1 blocker

40

guaifenesin

expectorant

41

N-acetylcysteine

expectorant

42

dextromethorphan

NMDA receptor antagonist

43

pseudoephedrine

sympathomimetic alpha agonist

44

phenylephrine

sympathomimetic alpha agonist

45

albuterol

SA beta2 agonist

46

salmeterol

LA beta2 agonist

47

formoterol

LA beta2 agonist

48

theophylline

methylxanthines: phosphodiesterase inhibitors

49

ipratropium

muscarinic receptor antagonist

50

beclomethasone

corticosteroid

51

fluticasone

corticosteroid

52

montelukast

antileukotrienes

53

zafirlukast

antileukotrienes

54

zileuton

antileukotrienes

55

omalizumab

anti-IgE antibody

56

methacholine

muscarinic receptor agonist

57

bosentan

endothelin-1 receptor competitive antagonist