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Flashcards in FARR3 Deck (105)
1

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

2

Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

3

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

4

Antihistone antibodies

Drug induced SLE (hydrlazine, isoniazid, joint pannus, Boutonniere deformity)

5

Anti- IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)

6

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal HTN)

7

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Microscopic polyangitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); granlumatosis with polyagnitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

8

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

9

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura

10

Anti-topoisomerase antiboides

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

11

Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distension, weight loss)

12

Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray"

Colorectal caner (usually left sided)

13

Azurophilic peroxidase (+) granular inclusion in granulocytes and myeloblasts

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic (M3) variant)

14

Bacitracin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

15

Bamboo spine" on x-ray"

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

16

Basophillic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

17

Basophillic stippling of RBC's

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

18

Bloody tap on LP

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

19

Boot shaped" heart on x-ray"

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

20

Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

21

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner syndrome)

22

Brown" tumor of bone"

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

23

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanasoma cruzi)

24

Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

25

Chocolate cyst" of ovary"

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

26

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale nurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)

27

Colonies of mucoid Psudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene -> fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

28

decreased AFP inamniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities

29

Degeneration of dorsal column nerves

Tabes dorsalis (3* syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected Vit B12, Vit E)

30

Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

31

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

32

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

33

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)

34

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

Owl eye" appearance of CMV"

35

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei

Orphan Annie" eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)"

36

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

37

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (Parkinson disease)

38

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

39

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells

Negri bodies of rabies

40

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

41

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (Owls eyes")"

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

42

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

43

Hair on end" (crew cut) appearrance on x-ray"

beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

44

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hyatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

45

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodes (rheumatic fever)

46

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

47

Hexagonal, double pointed, needle like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

48

High level of D-dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

49

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (1* TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

50

Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT"

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

51

Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

52

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

53

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn syndrome

54

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)

55

Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/ maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

56

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

57

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet like bodies

Cowdry type A bodies (HSC or CMV)

58

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increases chance of mesothelioma)

59

Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

60

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

61

Lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray"

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

62

Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement membrane

Goodpasture's syndrome

63

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

64

Lumpy Bumpy" appearance of glomeuli on immunofluorescence"

Postsreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

65

Lytic (hole punched") bone lesions on x-ray"

Multiple myeloma

66

Mammary gland (blue domed") cyst"

Fibrocystic change of the breast

67

Monoclonal antibody spike

Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA), Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS consequence of aging), Waldenstrom (M-protein = IgM) macroglobulinema, Primary amyloidosis

68

Mucin filled cell with peripheral nucleus

Signet ring" (gastric carcinoma)"

69

Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray

String sign" (Crohn disease)"

70

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture's syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies))

71

Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

72

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

73

Novobiocin response

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

74

Nutmeg" appearance of liver"

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

75

Onion skin" periosteal reaction"

Ewing sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

76

Optochin response

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: viridans Streptococci

77

Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area

Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)

78

Podocyte fusion or effacement" on electron microscopy"

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

79

Polished, ivory like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion"

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

80

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

81

Psamomma bodies

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

82

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

GBM- Glioblastoma multiforme

83

RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

84

Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusion in Leydig cells

Reinkey crytals (Leydig cell tumor)

85

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Acute toxic/viral renal injury

86

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

87

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

88

Ring enhancing brain lesions in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

89

Sheets of medium sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body laden macrophages (starry-sky histo)

Burkitt lymphoma (t 8:14) c-myc activation, associated with EBC; black sky" made up of malignant cells)"

90

Silver staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

91

Soap bubble" in femur/tibia on x-ray"

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

92

Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepi deposits"

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

93

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

94

Stiplled vaginal epithelial cells

Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)"

95

Tennis racket"- shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells"

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell hitiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophillic granuloma)

96

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

97

Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray"

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenza)

98

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

99

Tram-track" appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy"

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

100

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

101

Waxy" casts with very low urine flow"

Chronic end-stage renal disease

102

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

103

WBCs that look smudged""

CLL (usually B cell)

104

Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy"

Lupus nephropathy

105

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (eg from subarachnoid hemorrhage)