Flashcards in FARR3 Deck (105)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
Drug induced SLE (hydrlazine, isoniazid, joint pannus, Boutonniere deformity)
Anti- IgG antibodies
Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal HTN)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
Microscopic polyangitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); granlumatosis with polyagnitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Celiac disease (diarrhea, distension, weight loss)
Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray"
Colorectal caner (usually left sided)
Azurophilic peroxidase (+) granular inclusion in granulocytes and myeloblasts
Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic (M3) variant)
Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)
Bamboo spine" on x-ray"
Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophillic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophillic stippling of RBC's
Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloody tap on LP
Boot shaped" heart on x-ray"
Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging
Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner syndrome)
Brown" tumor of bone"
Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas disease (Trypanasoma cruzi)
Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule
Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Chocolate cyst" of ovary"
Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale nurofibrils
Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
Colonies of mucoid Psudomonas in lungs
Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene -> fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
decreased AFP inamniotic fluid/maternal serum
Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities
Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
Tabes dorsalis (3* syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected Vit B12, Vit E)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
Owl eye" appearance of CMV"
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei
Orphan Annie" eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)"
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
Lewy body (Parkinson disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liver
Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells
Negri bodies of rabies
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (Owls eyes")"
Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
Hair on end" (crew cut) appearrance on x-ray"
beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
Choriocarcinoma, hyatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)
Heart nodules (granulomatous)
Aschoff bodes (rheumatic fever)
Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double pointed, needle like crystals in bronchial secretions
Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers
DVT, PE, DIC
Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)
Ghon complex (1* TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)
Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT"
Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)
Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)
Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)
Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/ maternal serum
Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levels
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet like bodies
Cowdry type A bodies (HSC or CMV)
Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum
Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increases chance of mesothelioma)
Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy
Squamous cell carcinoma
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency
Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
Lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray"
Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)
Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement membrane
Low serum ceruloplasmin
Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
Lumpy Bumpy" appearance of glomeuli on immunofluorescence"
Postsreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
Lytic (hole punched") bone lesions on x-ray"
Mammary gland (blue domed") cyst"
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Monoclonal antibody spike
Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA), Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS consequence of aging), Waldenstrom (M-protein = IgM) macroglobulinema, Primary amyloidosis
Mucin filled cell with peripheral nucleus
Signet ring" (gastric carcinoma)"
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray
String sign" (Crohn disease)"
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture's syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies))
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Gout (monosodium urate crystals)
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Nutmeg" appearance of liver"
Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
Onion skin" periosteal reaction"
Ewing sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: viridans Streptococci
Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area
Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
Podocyte fusion or effacement" on electron microscopy"
Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
Polished, ivory like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion"
Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein
Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)
Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary
Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy
GBM- Glioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urine
Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusion in Leydig cells
Reinkey crytals (Leydig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urine
Acute toxic/viral renal injury
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)
Coarctation of the aorta
Ring enhancing brain lesions in AIDS
Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma
Sheets of medium sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body laden macrophages (starry-sky histo)
Burkitt lymphoma (t 8:14) c-myc activation, associated with EBC; black sky" made up of malignant cells)"
Silver staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)
Soap bubble" in femur/tibia on x-ray"
Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepi deposits"
Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)
Stacks of RBCs
Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
Stiplled vaginal epithelial cells
Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)"
Tennis racket"- shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells"
Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell hitiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophillic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layers
Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray"
Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenza)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney
Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Tram-track" appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy"
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles
Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
Waxy" casts with very low urine flow"
Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine
WBCs that look smudged""
CLL (usually B cell)
Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy"