What is the principle organ for estrogen and progesterone production in the female?
How many tissue layers are in the uterus? Name them.
1. Serous 2. Muscular 3. Mucous
What layer of the uterus is shed?
The mucous (endometirum) layer
What is the specialization found on the fallopian tubes that aid in oocyte/sperm movement?
What are the two hypothalamic peptide hormones that play a role in female reproduction?
What are the three pituitary hormones that play a role in female reproduction?
FSH LH Prolactin
What is the ovarian peptide hormones that inhibits the female reproductive cycle?
What are the four ovarian steroid hormones?
Estradiol Progesterone Androstenedione Testosterone
What ion causes the release of peptide hormone to be release from vesicle?
Are peptide hormones lipophilic or hydrophilic?
Do peptide hormones circulate freely, or bound to stuff?
Where in/on the cell do peptide hormones exert their effects?
On the cell membrane, binding to cell surface receptors
What are the two types of cell membrane receptors for peptide hormones?
Receptor protein tyrosine kinases G-coupled protein receptors
Steroid hormones are derived from what molecule?
Are steroid hormones lipophilic or hydrophilic?
How do steroid hormones circulate: bound or not?
What are the enzymes that synthesize estradiol from androstenediones?
Draw out the cholesterol pathway for steroid synthesis.
Where are the receptors found for steroid hormones? What happens when they are bound?
Cytosol--binding leads to movement to nucleus to upregulate DNA
Hormone duration in circulation is largely dependent on what?
Binding protein in the blood
What are the two principle sites of degradation of steroid hormones?
At the site of action Liver
How are steroid hormones degraded in the liver? (board question)
Conjugated via glucuronidation and sulfation to increase hydrophilicity (don't need to know this for this test)
What are the two ways steroid hormones are excreted?
in the bile or in the urine
What does estrogen do in the uterus? (3)
1. Increases size 2. Proliferate endometrium 3. Develop of endometrial glands
What is the effect of estrogen on ovaries and the vagina?
Increase in size
What is the effect of estrogen on the external sex organs?
Deposition of fat
What are the effects of estrogen on the fallopian tubes? (2)
Develop glandular tissue Increased epithelial cells
What are the two major effects of estrogen on the skeleton?
Inhibits osteoclastic activity, Unites epiphyses of long bones
What effect does estrogen have on Na/water retention?
What is the effect of estrogen on the cervical mucus? Progesterone?
Thin and stringy = estrogen Thick = progesterone
What are the three effects of progesterone on the uterus?
1. Promotes the secretory changes of the endometium 2. Decreases frequency of uterine contraction 3. Decreased prostaglandin production
What is the effect of progesterone on fallopian tubes?
Secretion of nutrients
What happens to the number of oogonia as a female reaches puberty?
goes down significantly
What is the oocyte that is present until reproductive years? Is this a diploid or haploid?
In what phase of meiosis is the primary oocyte in?
What is the gamete yield per oocyte in males? Females?
4 for males 1 for females
What is an ootid?
The egg before differentiation
What is chromosomal wastage?
Formation of polar bodies by the females gametogenesis
What is the primordial follicle?
A layer of **granulosa** cells that surround the primary oocyte
What is the hormones that granulosa cells secrete in the primordial follicle?
Maturation inhibiting factor
What is a primary follicle?
Oocyte + additional layers of granulosa cells
What stimulate the development of a primary follicle?
What is the hormone that promotes the secretion of FSH and LH from the pituitary?
What are the three hormones that are secreted by the gonads that play a role in female reproductive development?
Estrogen Progesterone Inhibins
What are the two hormones released from the anterior pituitary in response to GnRH?
FSH and LH
What is the feedback mechanism on the HPA in female reproduction? What type is this (ultra short, short, or long)?
Estrogen Progesterone Inhibins This is a long feedback regulation
Is the feedback mechanism for females negative or positive?
What is the average duration of the female monthly sexual cycle?
What are the two phases of the monthly sexual cycle?
Follicular phase Luteal phase
What happens during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
1. follicle development 2. Endometrial proliferation 3. oulation
GnRH is release in what fashion?
LH is release from the anterior pituitary how often?
About every 90 minutes
During the follicular phase, what type of feedback does estrogen exert? Where is this direceted?
Negative feedback at the ant pituitary and hypothalamus
Do LH and FSH levels ever go down to 0?
When is positive feedback occur with estrogen?
At mid cycle, just prior to ovulation
What type of feedback occurs in the luteal phase with estrogen? What does this do?
Negative--shuts down LH and FSH production
What are the cells that secrete inhibin B?
What is the effect of inhibin?
Exerts negative feedback on the HPA
When does inhibin B secretion spike?
Just after ovulation
What happens to [inhibin B] during the follicular phase?
What happens to the inhibin A in the luteal phase?
Secreted from the corpus luteum, inhibits gonadotropin secretion
When cells secrete inhibin A?
What are the cells that produce androstenedione in response to LH?
Androstenedione is converted to what by granulosa cells? What is this controlled by?
Estradiol Controlled by FSH
Theca cells synthesize androstenedione in response to what hormone? Where does this androstenedione go?
LH Androstenedione goes to the Granulosa cells, where it is converted to estradiol
What type of feedback occurs during the follicular phase with estrogen secretion?
Negative, but not completely inhibitory
Which hormone (LH or FSH) rises markedly during the follicular phase? What does this cause?
FSH Causes granulosa cell proliferation Develops theca cells
There are two types of theca cells. What are the theca cells that form the capsule of the follicle, and which are the hormone producing ones?
Theca externa = capsule Theca interna = secrete hormone
Increased steroid production from the theca cells is regulated by what hormones?
LH and FSH
What happens to FSH receptor expression in granulosa cells in response to estradiol secretion?
Increased FSH sensitivity and more follicular secretion
What increases the expression of LH receptors on theca cells?
What are the hormones that cause the proliferation of thecal cells?
LH and estradiol
How many follicles mature fully? What happens to the others that were growing?
One. Others die.
What happens when FSH declines in terms of follicular development?
Demise of immature follicles
What happens to the endometrium during the follicular phase?
What promotes the proliferation of the epithelial cells of the uterus and the other endometrial growth stuff?
At mid cycle, what happens to estrogen production? What causes this?
Increases markedly, caused by positive feedback
What is absolutely required for ovulation?
Surge in LH
What stimulates the rupture of the follicle?
What is the best marker for ovulation? Why?
Progesterone because it increases basal body temperature
What is the corpus luteum formed from?
Thecal, granulosa, fibroblasts, etc.
What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete?
Estradiol and progesterone
LH/ hCG stimulates theca cells to produce what? What happens to this hormone?
androstenedione--goes to the granulosa-lutein cell, to make estradiol
What are LDL receptors upregulated on granulosa-lutein cells?
Need cholesterol for progesterone synthesis
What are the cells that produce progesterone in the luteal phase?
Development and differentiation of the endometrium during the luteal phase is mediated by what hormone?
What is the progestational phase or secretory phase of the endometrial cycle?
When endometrium develops in the luteal phase
What are the endometrial changes seen in the luteal phase?
Increased vasculature and deposition of nutrients
What is the hormone that really shuts down anterior pit secretion of LH/FSH during the luteal phase?
What causes the loss of steroids seen in the luteal phase?
Loss of corpus luteum
What is the effect of progesterone on smooth muscle contraction? Prostaglandin production?
What causes the release of proteolytic enzymes in the menstrual phase?
Decline in estrogen and progesterone
Increases prostaglandin prodution in the mentrual phase causs what?
When the steroid production falls in the menstrual cycle, what happens to LH and FSH? WHy?
Rise d/t loss of negative feedback
What is the barrier that sperm must get through to fertilize the egg?
What allows a blastocyst to invade the endometrium?
What prevents that decline in LH/steroids with implantation of the blastocyst?
What does the corpus luteum secrete to inhibit myometrial contractions?
After week 8 maintenance of the pregnancy is no longer supported by the corpus luteum, but by what?
Plot out the summary slide.
What causes the transition to puberty?
Increased pulsatile release of GnRH at night, leading to increased estrogen synthesis
What causes the onset of menopause?
Loss of estradiol and inhibin d/t loss of follicles
What happens to LH and FSH during menopause? Why?
Elevation d/t a loss of negative feedback
Does estrogen production stop completely during menopause? Why or why not?
No, adipose tissue can still produce
What causes the rise in FSH and LH in the mid follicular phase?
development of the theca cells and granulosa cells
When FSH declines in the follicular phase, what does this cause?
Death of all but one follicle
What causes the decline in FSH in the mid follicular phase?
What are the cells that secrete inhibin B?
What causes the increase epithelialization of the uterus during the follicular phase?
What causes the increase in estradiol synthesis at the midpoint of menstruation?
Increased sensitivity of the granulosa/theca cells to FSH/LH
What does the surge in estrogen cause?
The surge in FSH and LH
What is the hormone that is ABSOLUTELY needed for ovulation?
Is there much progesterone in the body prior to the onset of the luteal phase?
What happens to the concentrations of FSH and LH in the mid luteal phase? Why?
Decreases due to progesterone and inhibin A secretion
What causes the corpus luteum to die if there is no implantation?
Loss of LH/FSH due to negative feedback by progesterone and inhibin A
What causes puberty?
Onset of nocturnal secretion of FSH/LH
What causes menopause?
Apoptosis of follicular cells, and resulting decrease in estrogen synthesis
What happens to [LH] and [FSH] during menopause? Why?
Increase since there is less estrogen to provide feedback inhibition