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Flashcards in Female reproductive Deck (118):
1

What is the principle organ for estrogen and progesterone production in the female?

Ovaries

2

How many tissue layers are in the uterus? Name them.

1. Serous 2. Muscular 3. Mucous

3

What layer of the uterus is shed?

The mucous (endometirum) layer

4

What is the specialization found on the fallopian tubes that aid in oocyte/sperm movement?

Cilia

5

What are the two hypothalamic peptide hormones that play a role in female reproduction?

GnRH Oxytocin

6

What are the three pituitary hormones that play a role in female reproduction?

FSH LH Prolactin

7

What is the ovarian peptide hormones that inhibits the female reproductive cycle?

Inhibi

8

What are the four ovarian steroid hormones?

Estradiol Progesterone Androstenedione Testosterone

9

What ion causes the release of peptide hormone to be release from vesicle?

Ca

10

Are peptide hormones lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic

11

Do peptide hormones circulate freely, or bound to stuff?

Freely

12

Where in/on the cell do peptide hormones exert their effects?

On the cell membrane, binding to cell surface receptors

13

What are the two types of cell membrane receptors for peptide hormones?

Receptor protein tyrosine kinases G-coupled protein receptors

14

Steroid hormones are derived from what molecule?

Cholesterol

15

Are steroid hormones lipophilic or hydrophilic?

Lipophilic

16

How do steroid hormones circulate: bound or not?

Bound

17

What are the enzymes that synthesize estradiol from androstenediones?

Aromatases

18

Draw out the cholesterol pathway for steroid synthesis.

***

19

Where are the receptors found for steroid hormones? What happens when they are bound?

Cytosol--binding leads to movement to nucleus to upregulate DNA

20

Hormone duration in circulation is largely dependent on what?

Binding protein in the blood

21

What are the two principle sites of degradation of steroid hormones?

At the site of action Liver

22

How are steroid hormones degraded in the liver? (board question)

Conjugated via glucuronidation and sulfation to increase hydrophilicity (don't need to know this for this test)

23

What are the two ways steroid hormones are excreted?

in the bile or in the urine

24

What does estrogen do in the uterus? (3)

1. Increases size 2. Proliferate endometrium 3. Develop of endometrial glands

25

What is the effect of estrogen on ovaries and the vagina?

Increase in size

26

What is the effect of estrogen on the external sex organs?

Deposition of fat

27

What are the effects of estrogen on the fallopian tubes? (2)

Develop glandular tissue Increased epithelial cells

28

What are the two major effects of estrogen on the skeleton?

Inhibits osteoclastic activity, Unites epiphyses of long bones

29

What effect does estrogen have on Na/water retention?

Increases

30

What is the effect of estrogen on the cervical mucus? Progesterone?

Thin and stringy = estrogen Thick = progesterone

31

What are the three effects of progesterone on the uterus?

1. Promotes the secretory changes of the endometium 2. Decreases frequency of uterine contraction 3. Decreased prostaglandin production

32

What is the effect of progesterone on fallopian tubes?

Secretion of nutrients

33

What happens to the number of oogonia as a female reaches puberty?

goes down significantly

34

What is the oocyte that is present until reproductive years? Is this a diploid or haploid?

Primary oocyte--diploid

35

In what phase of meiosis is the primary oocyte in?

Prophase I

36

What is the gamete yield per oocyte in males? Females?

4 for males 1 for females

37

What is an ootid?

The egg before differentiation

38

What is chromosomal wastage?

Formation of polar bodies by the females gametogenesis

39

What is the primordial follicle?

A layer of **granulosa** cells that surround the primary oocyte

40

What is the hormones that granulosa cells secrete in the primordial follicle?

Maturation inhibiting factor

41

What is a primary follicle?

Oocyte + additional layers of granulosa cells

42

What stimulate the development of a primary follicle?

LH/FSH***

43

What is the hormone that promotes the secretion of FSH and LH from the pituitary?

GnRH

44

What are the three hormones that are secreted by the gonads that play a role in female reproductive development?

Estrogen Progesterone Inhibins

45

What are the two hormones released from the anterior pituitary in response to GnRH?

FSH and LH

46

What is the feedback mechanism on the HPA in female reproduction? What type is this (ultra short, short, or long)?

Estrogen Progesterone Inhibins This is a long feedback regulation

47

Is the feedback mechanism for females negative or positive?

Mixed

48

What is the average duration of the female monthly sexual cycle?

28 days

49

What are the two phases of the monthly sexual cycle?

Follicular phase Luteal phase

50

What happens during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?

1. follicle development 2. Endometrial proliferation 3. oulation

51

GnRH is release in what fashion?

Pulsatile

52

LH is release from the anterior pituitary how often?

About every 90 minutes

53

During the follicular phase, what type of feedback does estrogen exert? Where is this direceted?

Negative feedback at the ant pituitary and hypothalamus

54

Do LH and FSH levels ever go down to 0?

no

55

When is positive feedback occur with estrogen?

At mid cycle, just prior to ovulation

56

What type of feedback occurs in the luteal phase with estrogen? What does this do?

Negative--shuts down LH and FSH production

57

What are the cells that secrete inhibin B?

Granulosa cells

58

What is the effect of inhibin?

Exerts negative feedback on the HPA

59

When does inhibin B secretion spike?

Just after ovulation

60

What happens to [inhibin B] during the follicular phase?

medium levels

61

What happens to the inhibin A in the luteal phase?

Secreted from the corpus luteum, inhibits gonadotropin secretion

62

When cells secrete inhibin A?

Corpus luteum

63

What are the cells that produce androstenedione in response to LH?

Theca cells

64

Androstenedione is converted to what by granulosa cells? What is this controlled by?

Estradiol Controlled by FSH

65

Theca cells synthesize androstenedione in response to what hormone? Where does this androstenedione go?

LH Androstenedione goes to the Granulosa cells, where it is converted to estradiol

66

What type of feedback occurs during the follicular phase with estrogen secretion?

Negative, but not completely inhibitory

67

Which hormone (LH or FSH) rises markedly during the follicular phase? What does this cause?

FSH Causes granulosa cell proliferation Develops theca cells

68

There are two types of theca cells. What are the theca cells that form the capsule of the follicle, and which are the hormone producing ones?

Theca externa = capsule Theca interna = secrete hormone

69

Increased steroid production from the theca cells is regulated by what hormones?

LH and FSH

70

What happens to FSH receptor expression in granulosa cells in response to estradiol secretion?

Increased FSH sensitivity and more follicular secretion

71

What increases the expression of LH receptors on theca cells?

Estradiol

72

What are the hormones that cause the proliferation of thecal cells?

LH and estradiol

73

How many follicles mature fully? What happens to the others that were growing?

One. Others die.

74

What happens when FSH declines in terms of follicular development?

Demise of immature follicles

75

What happens to the endometrium during the follicular phase?

Endometrial proliferation

76

What promotes the proliferation of the epithelial cells of the uterus and the other endometrial growth stuff?

estrogen

77

At mid cycle, what happens to estrogen production? What causes this?

Increases markedly, caused by positive feedback

78

What is absolutely required for ovulation?

Surge in LH

79

What stimulates the rupture of the follicle?

LH

80

What is the best marker for ovulation? Why?

Progesterone because it increases basal body temperature

81

What is the corpus luteum formed from?

Thecal, granulosa, fibroblasts, etc.

82

What hormones does the corpus luteum secrete?

Estradiol and progesterone

83

LH/ hCG stimulates theca cells to produce what? What happens to this hormone?

androstenedione--goes to the granulosa-lutein cell, to make estradiol

84

What are LDL receptors upregulated on granulosa-lutein cells?

Need cholesterol for progesterone synthesis

85

What are the cells that produce progesterone in the luteal phase?

Granulosa-lutein cells

86

Development and differentiation of the endometrium during the luteal phase is mediated by what hormone?

Progesterone

87

What is the progestational phase or secretory phase of the endometrial cycle?

When endometrium develops in the luteal phase

88

What are the endometrial changes seen in the luteal phase?

Increased vasculature and deposition of nutrients

89

What is the hormone that really shuts down anterior pit secretion of LH/FSH during the luteal phase?

Inhibin A

90

What causes the loss of steroids seen in the luteal phase?

Loss of corpus luteum

91

What is the effect of progesterone on smooth muscle contraction? Prostaglandin production?

Suppresses

92

What causes the release of proteolytic enzymes in the menstrual phase?

Decline in estrogen and progesterone

93

Increases prostaglandin prodution in the mentrual phase causs what?

Contraction

94

When the steroid production falls in the menstrual cycle, what happens to LH and FSH? WHy?

Rise d/t loss of negative feedback

95

What is the barrier that sperm must get through to fertilize the egg?

zona pellucida

96

What allows a blastocyst to invade the endometrium?

Enzyme secretion

97

What prevents that decline in LH/steroids with implantation of the blastocyst?

hCG released

98

What does the corpus luteum secrete to inhibit myometrial contractions?

Relaxin

99

After week 8 maintenance of the pregnancy is no longer supported by the corpus luteum, but by what?

The placenta

100

Plot out the summary slide.

A image thumb
101

What causes the transition to puberty?

Increased pulsatile release of GnRH at night, leading to increased estrogen synthesis

102

What causes the onset of menopause?

Loss of estradiol and inhibin d/t loss of follicles

103

What happens to LH and FSH during menopause? Why?

Elevation d/t a loss of negative feedback

104

Does estrogen production stop completely during menopause? Why or why not?

No, adipose tissue can still produce

105

What causes the rise in FSH and LH in the mid follicular phase?

development of the theca cells and granulosa cells

106

When FSH declines in the follicular phase, what does this cause?

Death of all but one follicle

107

What causes the decline in FSH in the mid follicular phase?

Inhibin B

108

What are the cells that secrete inhibin B?

Granulosa cells

109

What causes the increase epithelialization of the uterus during the follicular phase?

Estrogen

110

What causes the increase in estradiol synthesis at the midpoint of menstruation?

Increased sensitivity of the granulosa/theca cells to FSH/LH

111

What does the surge in estrogen cause?

The surge in FSH and LH

112

What is the hormone that is ABSOLUTELY needed for ovulation?

LH

113

Is there much progesterone in the body prior to the onset of the luteal phase?

Not much

114

What happens to the concentrations of FSH and LH in the mid luteal phase? Why?

Decreases due to progesterone and inhibin A secretion

115

What causes the corpus luteum to die if there is no implantation?

Loss of LH/FSH due to negative feedback by progesterone and inhibin A

116

What causes puberty?

Onset of nocturnal secretion of FSH/LH

117

What causes menopause?

Apoptosis of follicular cells, and resulting decrease in estrogen synthesis

118

What happens to [LH] and [FSH] during menopause? Why?

Increase since there is less estrogen to provide feedback inhibition