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Flashcards in Limbic System Deck (76):
1

What is emotion?

Subjective feelings and associated physiological states

2

What are subjective feelings?

explicit conscious awareness, such as fear, anxiety,
happiness

3

Are physiologic states of emotion implicit or explicit?

Implicit (unconscious)

4

What are the two components of the physiologic part of emotion?

Skeletal muscle activity
Visceral activity

5

What are the two characteristics of the limbic system that make it ideal for regulating emotions?

Connects cortex and lower parts of the brain

6

What are the affective responses of the limbic system?

Fear
Rage
Pleasure
Motivation

7

True or false: the limbic system plays no role in memory

False--critical for certain types of memory

8

What is the role of the limbic system in homeostasis? (4)

Reproductive drive
Eating/drinking
Endocrine
Autonomic regulation

9

What are the main components of the limbic system?

Cingulate gyrus
Hippocampus
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Olfactory system
Septal nuclei
Insula
Thalamus

10

What are the two nuclei of the thalamus that are a part of the limbic system?

Anterior nucleus
Mediodorsal nucleus

11

What are the three parts of the limbic cortex?

-Anterior cingulate gyrus
-Orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal cortex
-Insula

12

What is the primary output of the limbic system?

Hypothalamus

13

What is the higher part of the brain that the amygdala is connected to?

Limbic cortex

14

What is the role of the hypothalamus in the limbic system?

governs and monitors internal homeostasis and
basic needs such as hunger and thirst.

15

Higher order limbic nuclei (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus), do what?

achieve
some awareness of external reality and begin to form memories.

16

What is the role of the limbic cortex?

more efficiently, effectively, and safely satisfy
limbic needs and impulses; associated with the conscious, rational
mind.

17

True or false: Under certain circumstances, emotions can hijack the logical mind,
and the limbic system can overturn the neocortex

True

18

What part of the brain utilizes dopamine?

Mesolimbic system

19

What are the parts of the mesolimbic system?

NAcc, mPFC, septal nuclei

Nigrostriatal projections

20

What neurotransmitter does the Locus ceruleus use?

NE

21

What neurotransmitter does the raphe nuclei use?

5HT

22

What neurotransmitter do the nucleus basalis and septal nuclei use?

Ach

23

True or false: the hypothalamus is fully functional at birth

True

24

How is the hypothalamus involved in the emotional response?

Through the ANS

25

What are the two way the hypothalamus send information?

Neuronal circuitry
Endocrine

26

The hypothalamus can mediate body responses between internal and external information. What is the part of the brain that is necessary for conscious appreciation of stimuli, and emotional response?

Limbic system

27

What is the role of the amygdala?

Integrative center for emotions, emotional behavior, and
motivation

28

What are the three groups of nuclei in the amygdala?

1. Corticomedial nucleus
2. Basolateral nucleus
3. Central nucleus

29

What are the major inputs into the amygdala? (4)

Sensory cortex
Sensory thalamus
Associative cortex
Prefrontal cortex

30

What are the two outputs of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala?

Thalamus
Basal ganglia

31

What are the major input/outputs of the central nucleus of the amygdala (they're all reciprocal)?

Brainstem
PAG
Autonomic centers

32

What is the major input into the corticomedial nucleus of the amygdala?

Olfactory

33

What is the output of the olfactory nucleus of the amygdala?

To the hypothalamus, then to pituitary

34

What are the three major outputs of the amygdala?

Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Basal ganglia

35

Why is the basolateral part of the amygdala enlarged in humans?

Major input area that projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala

36

What part of the brain is involved in recognition of facial expression?

Amygdala

37

What is the role in homeostasis that the amygdala plays? (2)

Conditioning of autonomic responses

Neuroendocrine control

38

What is the effect of an amydalectomy?

Flat affect, loss of fear

39

What is the role of the amygdala in memory and learning?

-Conditioned fears
-Response to aversive stimuli
-Modulate working memory

40

What part of the brain works with the amygdala to play a role in motivation and emotion?

Nucleus accumbens

41

What is the underlying neural circuit in learning of the amygdala?

Synaptic connections of sensory inputs to
amygdala neurons are strengthened

42

How does the activity of the amygdala change when presented with faces?

Increases

43

Stimulation of the amygdala produces what?

A sense of familiarity

44

What is the role of the amygdala in homeostasis?

Neuroendocrine control

45

The somatosensory cortex projects to what nucleus in the amygdala in the neural circuit of fear conditioning? Where does this send projections to?

Basolateral -- to the PVN, LH and CG of the hypothalamus

46

What is the role of the PVN (paraventricular nucleus) of the hypothalamus in the neural circuit of fear conditioning pathway?

Release hormones

47

What is the role of the lateral hypothalamus in the neural circuit of fear conditioning pathway?

Autonomic stuffs

48

What is the role of the auditory cortex in the neural circuit of fear conditioning?

Projects to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala.

49

What are the three types of conditional fear in humans?

Fear conditioning
Instructed fear
Observational fear

50

What is instructed fear?

Telling someone you will hurt them

51

What is observational fear?

CS after the subject observed someone else undergoing fear conditioning

52

What does the hippocampus do in learning and memory?

Provides context

53

What is the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in fear?

Regulates how much fear the amygdala expresses

54

Why do teenagers suck?

No cortex to regulate amygdala

55

What part of the brain deals with the raw and reflexive emotional response to stimuli?

Hypothalamus

56

What part of the brain deals with the external emotional feature of reality/assign emotional significance to what is experienced?

Amygdala

57

What part of the brain is involved in understanding emotions of others?

Mirror neurons of the limbic cortex

58

What are mirror neurons?

Neurons that activate the same neural pathways just by seeing someone else do it

59

What part of the brain mediate empathy?

Only that part of the pain network associated
with its affective qualities, but not its sensory qualities, mediates empathy.

60

A lesion where will produce the following symptoms:

• Apathetic
• Impulsive
• Poor judgment
• Depressive behaviors
• Mania

Prefrontal cortex

61

What are the three areas of the brain that are involved in the brain reward system?

Nucleus accumbens
Frontal cortex
Ventral tegmental area

62

What is the major neurotransmitter involved in the reward pathway

Dopamine

63

What composes the nucleus accumbens?

Caudate nucleus + putamen (= striatum)

64

What is the underlying circuitry of the brain reward system?

Limbic loop

65

What is the reward signal?

Dopamine from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens

66

What are the inputs into the nucleus accumbens in the reward pathway? (4)

Prefrontal cortex
Amygdala
VTA
Hippocampus

67

Where does the nucleus accumbens output to in the reward pathway?

Ventral Pallidus to thalamus

68

What is the gist of the reward pathway?

Cortex
Striatum
Pallidum
Thalamus
AND BACK TO CORTEX!

69

What other loop is similar to the reward loop?

motor loop and goal directed behavior

70

What part of the thalamus is involved in the limbic loop?

Mediodorsal

71

What is the function of the VTA in the reward system?

provides dopamine

72

What is the role of the limbic system in the reward system?

emotional processing in the limbic
system can signal the presence of rewards and can promote the activation of
motor programs to acquire the beneficial rewards

73

What is the MOA of addicting drugs such as cocaine, heroin, opiates, marijuana etc?

act on elements of the limbic circuitry by
altering the neuromodulatory influence of dopamine

74

What is the effect of addictive substances on the reward pathway?

Addiction dampens the response of reward circuitry to natural rewards, and
intensifies the response to addictive drugs, resulting in “hypofrontality” –
reduced cortical control of emotional behaviors.

75

What is the effect of addiction on the frontal lobe?

Reduced goal setting
Lack of motivation
Diminished planning
Impulse inhibition

76

What is the effect of addiction on the limbic lobe?

Anxiety
Urgency
Negative affect
Craving
Impulsivity