Structural Properties of the Lung Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Structural Properties of the Lung Deck (81):
1

What parts of the brain sense pH, [CO2] and [O2]?

Respiratory centers in the medulla

2

What is the major function of the upper airways?

Condition inspired air

3

What are the three things that the brain monitors?

pH
O2
CO2

4

Which two organs control the pH of the blood?

Lungs
Kidneys

5

Particles larger than what size and cleared from the upper airway?

10 micometers

6

Upper airway resistance (like the nose) is what percent? What affects this?

50%

Infections

7

What are the two components of the airway?

Conducting
Respiratory

8

What is the total surface area of the alveolar airway?

50 m^2

9

In which generations of airway branching are there no alveoli (known as the conducting zone)? Is there gas exchange?

1-16

No gas exchange

10

How many generations of airway branching are there?

23

11

Is there cartilage in the bronchi? Bronchioles? Alveoli?

yes for bronchi. No for lower down

12

Where does the mucus layer end in the airways?

Bronchioles

13

Where does the smooth muscle end in the airways?

alveoli

14

What is the main source of air resistance in the lower respiratory tract?

Bronchioles

15

What is the treatment for asthma?

Beta receptor agonists on smooth muscle of the bronchial endothelium

16

What is the main purpose of the alveolar compartment?

Gas exchange

17

What are the cells that are responsible for mucus production?

Goblet cells

18

What type of epithelium is present in the airway?

Pseudostratified ciliated

19

What is the purpose of the mucus blanket?

humidify air
Make airflow smoother

20

What is the function of the submucosal glands? Where are they present?

Produce mucous and serous secretions

Present where there is cartilage

21

What is the innervation of the submucosal and trachobronchial glands?

SANS
PANS--mostly
Local mediators

22

What are the cells types that clear the mucus in the upper respiratory tract? What do they produce?

Ciliated epithelial cells

Produce periciliary fluid (Cl secretion, Na absorption)

23

What is the purpose of the rhythmic ciliary beating?

Remove mucus

24

What is the MOA of CF?

Abnormal Cl secretion, leading to increased mucus thickness

25

What are the two key cells in the alveolar lumen? Which are the main structural component? Which produce surfactant?

Type 1 - form walls
Type 2 - surfactant production

26

What immune cells are present in the alveoli?

Macrophages
Mast cells

27

What comprises a respiratory unit?

Bronchiole
Alveolar ducts
Atria
Alveoli

28

What are the pores of Kohn? What is their purpose?

Connecting holes between alveoli that function as a means of collateral ventilation

29

What is the downside of pores of Kohn?

Allow for bacterial infections to spread easily

30

Each alveolus has how many capillaries?

500 (makes a sheet of blood flow)

31

What is the respiratory membrane?

The place where the gas exchange occurs- between endothelial cells of the capillaries

32

What is the composition of the respiratory membrane?

Surfactant
Alveolar epithelium
Epithelium BM
Interstitial space
Capillary BM
Capillary endothelial membrane

33

What happens to the respiratory membrane in pnuemonia infections?

Increases the resistance to respiratory gas exchange

34

What is the cause of COPD?

respiratory membrane damage

35

Increases in hydrostatic pressure of the capillaries causes what? What causes this?

Increased flow out

Heart failure

36

What causes the SOB of heart failure?

Increased fluid present over the respiratory membrane

37

Where do antibodies in autoimmune diseases affect lung function?

In the capillaries at the respiratory membrane

38

What is the composition of the lung interstitium?

CT
Smooth muscle
Lymph
Capillaries
Cells

39

What are the cells in the lung interstitium that produce collagen and elastin?

Fibroblasts

40

What is the function of the elastin in the lung interstitium?

Elastin is the major contributor to elastic recoil of the lung

41

What is the function of the collagen in the lung interstitium

Collagen is the major structural component of the lung that limits lung
distensibility

42

What is the function of the parietal and visceral pleura?

Help provide expansion of the lungs

43

What is the function of the pleural fluid?

Sticks together

44

What is the source of the pleural fluid? Where does it go?

Comes from capillaries or the parietal pleura

Goes through parietal space and drains into lymphatic system

45

What are the areas that drain the pleural fluid?

Stomata

46

Which layer has stomata, the parietal or visceral pleura?

Parietal

47

In which layer are the microvessels closer to the pleural surface: the parietal or visceral pleura? What is the consequence of this?

Parietal

This means that the source of pleural fluid is from these capillaries

48

What can cause pleural effusion? How? (hint, capillaries pressures!) (2)

CHF

Causes increased pulmonary venous hydrostatic pressure from the VISCERAL side d/t increased left ventricular pressure.


Also decreased oncotic pressure in the blood

49

What causes atelectasis? (2)

Decreased pleural pressure (in the pleural space), leading to increased fluid uptake into the space

Blockage of lymph

50

What is the lungs role in the acid base balance?

Remove CO2

51

What is the lungs' role in defense mechanism?

Remove the bacteria/viruses/

52

What is the lung's role in metabolism?

Must match O2 demand

53

Does nasal resistance change with air flow? If so, how?

Yes, directly

54

What do the respiratory epithelial cells of the nasopharynx secrete to aid in defense?

Immunoglobulins
Interferons
Inflammatory mediators

55

What are the two major functions of the sinuses?

1. Lighten the skull
2. Resonance for voice

56

How are the terminal bronchioles distinguished?

Smallest airways without alveoli

57

What are the three structures that comprise the last 7 generations of branching in the airway?

1. respiratory bronchioles
2. alveolar ducts
3. alveolar sacs

58

What happens to the cartilage surrounding the bronchi as they enter the lungs?

Turn from C-shaped rings to plates

59

Do the bronchioles and alveolar ducts contain cartilage? What is the significance of this?

No, thus they are subject to collapse when compressed

60

As the cartilage plates become irregularly distributed around distal airways, what surrounds these airways? What is this intermingled with?

Muscle layer intermingled with elastic fibers

61

What are the three principle layers of tissue in the conducting airways?

1. Inner mucosal surface
2. Smooth muscle layer
3. CT layer

62

What is the epithelial type in the bronchial wall?

Pseudostratified

63

What is the epithelial type in smaller bronchioles? Is cartilage present?

Simple, without cartilage

64

Where are submucosal tracheobronchial glands present?

Wherever there is cartilage in the tracheobronchial tree

65

What happens to the number of submucosal tracheobronchial glands present in chronic bronchitis?

Increase is size and number

66

What is the function of Clara cells? Where are these found?

Found at the level of the bronchioles

Unknown function

67

Where does airway resistance come from in the lower respiratory airway? How?

Bronchioles and bronchi through muscle contraction and secretions

68

True or false: the junctions between endothelial cells of the lungs are leaky

True- to allow for gas exchange

69

What are Kultschitzky cells?

neuroendocrine cells found in clumps throughout the tracheobronchial tree
and secrete biogenic amines, including dopamine, 5HT

70

What is the blood supply to the visceral pleura?

Bronchial circulation

71

What is the blood supply to the parietal pleura?

Intercostal arteries

72

What states can cause increased microvascular hydrostatic pressure? What is the result of this?

CHF

Increased pulmonary venous pressure moves fluid across the visceral mesothelium

73

What is the effect of a decreased microvascular oncotic pressure of the on the lungs?

A decrease in oncotic pressure in the
microvascular circulation will increase the tendency to form pleural interstitial liquid.

74

What is the effect of a decreased pressure in the pleural space of the on the lungs?

When there is a decrease in pressure in the pleural
space as in atelectasis, the pressure gradient from the pleural interstitium to the pleural
space increases and favors the formation of pleural liquid.

75

What can cause increased microvascular permeability in the lungs? Result?

inflammation of both pulmonary and
pleural microvessels

Liquid and protein leak across the lung and
pleural microvessels at an increased rate.

76

How can fluid from the peritoneum to the pleural space happen?

Through either diaphragmatic defects or diaphragmatic
lymphatics

77

What are the two ways in which the clearance rate of the pleural fluid decreases?

1. Increase in venous pressure
2. Blockage of stomata

78

What are the two components of the conducting airways?

1. Bronchi
2. Upper part of the bronchioles

79

What are the three components of the alveolar air spaces?

1. Lower part of the bronchioles
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Alveolar sacs

80

The conducting airways are from what numbered airways?

1-16

81

What are the cholinergic receptors on the lungs?

M3