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Flashcards in Review for test 3 Deck (68):
1

What is the effect of peptide YY?

Secreted from the ileum, and inhibits pancreatic secretions

2

What are the three actions of the stomach?

Relaxation
Churning
Emptying

3

What are the two neurotransmitters that stimulate neck cells of the stomach to secrete mucus?

Ach
PGs

4

What is pyloric stenosis the result of?

Lack of NO at pylorus

5

What is the primary controller of the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion?

Vagovagal reflex

6

What is the primary controller of the gastric phase of pancreatic secretion?

Distension in the stomach

7

What is the primary controller of the intestinal phase of pancreatic secretion?

Fat on I cells, causing CCK release

8

What part of the intestines are Brunner's glands found?

duodenum

9

What is the equation for TPR in the peripheral circulation?

TPR = dP/CO, where dP = (pressure at aorta - pressure at RA)

10

What is the equation for TPR in the pulmonary circulation?

TPR = dP/CO, where dP = (pressure at pulmonary artery - pressure at pulmonary vein)

11

What is the effect of NE/E on the afferent/efferent arterioles of the glomerulus?

Preferentially constricts afferent

12

What is the effect of adenosine on afferent/efferent arterioles?

Preferentially constricts afferent arteriole.

13

What stimulates FGF23 release, and what does it do?

high PO3 causes release. FGF23 causes increased secretion of PO3 via the kidneys, and decreases calcitriol production

14

What cells release FGF23?

osteoblasts

15

What is P2Y12?

G-protein coupled receptor that leads to platelet aggregation. --plavex inhibits this

16

What is the MOA of botulina toxin?

Inhibits SNAREs/SNAPs of acetylcholine release

17

What is the receptor located on sweat glands?

M3

18

What causes vasoconstriction of peripheral skin vessels?

Reduction in symp alpha2 activity

19

What is the effect of angiotensin on renal blood flow? What is the effect of ACE inhibitors?

Preferentially constricts efferent. Thus ACE inhibitors would decrease GFR if renal artery pressure falls below normal

20

Where are the juxtaglomerular cells found?

Afferent arteriole

21

What is effect of NSAIDs on GFR

Decreases because it inhibits prostaglandins at the afferent arteriole

22

What is FVC?

forced vital capacity (VC = total amount of air with inspiration)

23

What is FEV1?

The forced vital capacity after 1 second of maximal expiration

24

What is FEV1/FVC?

Amount of air that can be expelled after 1 second, as a percent of FVC

25

What happens to the TLC in obstructive lung disease? Peak flow? FEF25?

TLC Increases
Peak flow decreases slightly
FEF25 decreases markedly

26

What happens to the TLC in an upper airway obstruction? Peak flow? FEF25?

TLC remains the same
Flow reaches plateau
FEF25 decreases

27

What happens to the TLC in restrictive lung diseases? Peak flow? FEF25?

TLF decreases
Peak flow decreases
(everything gets smaller)

28

What is the main muscle of inspiration?

Diaphragm

29

What role does the diaphragm play in expiration?

Little--mostly relaxes

30

How are the external intercostal arranged?

Superolaterally

31

How are the internal intercostal arranged?

Inferolaterally

32

Which are used for inspiration and which for expiration: internal and external intercostals?

Inspiration = External intercostals
Expiration = Internal intercostals

33

What are the accessory muscle of breathing? (3)

Scalenes/SCM
Abdominal muscles
External/internal intercostals

34

What are the characteristics of asthma, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).

Reversibility = high
Sputum production = low
Alveolar damage = low

35

What are the characteristics of chronic bronchitis, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).

Reversibility = med
Sputum production = high
Alveolar damage = med

36

What are the characteristics of emphysema, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).

Reversibility = low
Sputum production = low
Alveolar damage = high

37

What are the two types of asthma?

Allergic
Non-allergic

38

What is the one treatment that can be offered for allergic asthma, that cannot be offered for non-allergic asthma?

Immunotherapy

39

Which is genetically acquired, allergic or nonallergic asthma

Allergic

40

What are the three characteristics of asthma?

1. Contraction of airway smooth muscle
2. Airway wall thickening
3. Accumulation of secretions

41

What are the two therapeutic options in treating asthma (think sympathetic and parasympathetic responses)?

1. B2 stimulators (bronchodilators)
2. Anticholinergics (inhibit M3)

42

What is the MOA of corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?

Block leukotriene synthesis, (which cause smooth muscle contraction)

43

What is the MOA of cocaine?

Inhibits dopamine reuptake proteins (NET)

44

What is the blocker of Tyrosine hydroxylase?

Metyrosine

45

What is the protein that stores dopamine? What inhibits this?

VMAT, reserpine

46

What is the chemical that inhibits dopamine release?

Bretylium

47

Long presynapse, short post = ?
Equal = ?

Long pre, short post = para
Equal = symp

48

All presynaptic ganglia use what neurotransmitter?

Ach

49

What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all somatic nerves?

Ach, nicotinic

50

What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all presynaptic nerves?

Ach, Nicotinic

51

What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all parasympathetic nerves?

Ach, muscarinic

52

What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for sympathetic nerves?

NE/E, D, alpha, or beta adrenergic receptors

53

What is the neurotransmitter and receptor for sweat glands?

Ach, Muscarinic

54

What is the MOA of alpha bungarotoxin?

irreversible blocking of nicotinic receptors

55

What is the precursor molecule for ACh?

Choline

56

What is the transporter for choline? What blocks this?

CHT, hemicholine

57

What is the storage protein for Ach? What inhibits this?

VAT, vesamicol

58

What is the chemical that inhibits the release of ACh?

Botulinum toxin

59

What is the pathophysiology behind Eaton lambert syndrome?

Autoimmune against PREsynaptic Ca channels on motor end plate

60

Stimulation of what part of the brain leads to sweating?

Hypothalamic-preoptic area

61

What is the normal value of FEV1?

0.8

62

What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in obstructive lung diseases?

Decreases because FEV1 decreases more than FVC

63

What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in restrictive lung diseases?

Increases because both FEV1 and FVC decrease, but FVC decreases more

64

What are the two parts of the hypothalamus that regulate body heat? What does each do?

1. Pre-optic area (main body core sensor
2. Posterior hypothalamus (integrating center)

65

What is the MOA of GLP1 analogues in treating DM?

GLP1 is normally release with insulin, and promotes it activity. Thus increase GLP1 promote insulin action

66

What is the MOA of DPP4 inhibitors?

DPP4 normally degrades GLP1. GLP1 increases insulin action. Thus more GLP1

67

What is the MOA of thiazolidinediones?

Increases the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4

68

What is the MOA of Sulfonylureas and meglitinides?

Inactivates the K pump on beta cells of the pancreas. This causes depolarization, influx of Ca, and release of insulin