Flashcards in Review for test 3 Deck (68):
What is the effect of peptide YY?
Secreted from the ileum, and inhibits pancreatic secretions
What are the three actions of the stomach?
What are the two neurotransmitters that stimulate neck cells of the stomach to secrete mucus?
What is pyloric stenosis the result of?
Lack of NO at pylorus
What is the primary controller of the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion?
What is the primary controller of the gastric phase of pancreatic secretion?
Distension in the stomach
What is the primary controller of the intestinal phase of pancreatic secretion?
Fat on I cells, causing CCK release
What part of the intestines are Brunner's glands found?
What is the equation for TPR in the peripheral circulation?
TPR = dP/CO, where dP = (pressure at aorta - pressure at RA)
What is the equation for TPR in the pulmonary circulation?
TPR = dP/CO, where dP = (pressure at pulmonary artery - pressure at pulmonary vein)
What is the effect of NE/E on the afferent/efferent arterioles of the glomerulus?
Preferentially constricts afferent
What is the effect of adenosine on afferent/efferent arterioles?
Preferentially constricts afferent arteriole.
What stimulates FGF23 release, and what does it do?
high PO3 causes release. FGF23 causes increased secretion of PO3 via the kidneys, and decreases calcitriol production
What cells release FGF23?
What is P2Y12?
G-protein coupled receptor that leads to platelet aggregation. --plavex inhibits this
What is the MOA of botulina toxin?
Inhibits SNAREs/SNAPs of acetylcholine release
What is the receptor located on sweat glands?
What causes vasoconstriction of peripheral skin vessels?
Reduction in symp alpha2 activity
What is the effect of angiotensin on renal blood flow? What is the effect of ACE inhibitors?
Preferentially constricts efferent. Thus ACE inhibitors would decrease GFR if renal artery pressure falls below normal
Where are the juxtaglomerular cells found?
What is effect of NSAIDs on GFR
Decreases because it inhibits prostaglandins at the afferent arteriole
What is FVC?
forced vital capacity (VC = total amount of air with inspiration)
What is FEV1?
The forced vital capacity after 1 second of maximal expiration
What is FEV1/FVC?
Amount of air that can be expelled after 1 second, as a percent of FVC
What happens to the TLC in obstructive lung disease? Peak flow? FEF25?
Peak flow decreases slightly
FEF25 decreases markedly
What happens to the TLC in an upper airway obstruction? Peak flow? FEF25?
TLC remains the same
Flow reaches plateau
What happens to the TLC in restrictive lung diseases? Peak flow? FEF25?
Peak flow decreases
(everything gets smaller)
What is the main muscle of inspiration?
What role does the diaphragm play in expiration?
How are the external intercostal arranged?
How are the internal intercostal arranged?
Which are used for inspiration and which for expiration: internal and external intercostals?
Inspiration = External intercostals
Expiration = Internal intercostals
What are the accessory muscle of breathing? (3)
What are the characteristics of asthma, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).
Reversibility = high
Sputum production = low
Alveolar damage = low
What are the characteristics of chronic bronchitis, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).
Reversibility = med
Sputum production = high
Alveolar damage = med
What are the characteristics of emphysema, in terms of reversibility, sputum production, and alveolar damage? (high, med, low).
Reversibility = low
Sputum production = low
Alveolar damage = high
What are the two types of asthma?
What is the one treatment that can be offered for allergic asthma, that cannot be offered for non-allergic asthma?
Which is genetically acquired, allergic or nonallergic asthma
What are the three characteristics of asthma?
1. Contraction of airway smooth muscle
2. Airway wall thickening
3. Accumulation of secretions
What are the two therapeutic options in treating asthma (think sympathetic and parasympathetic responses)?
1. B2 stimulators (bronchodilators)
2. Anticholinergics (inhibit M3)
What is the MOA of corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?
Block leukotriene synthesis, (which cause smooth muscle contraction)
What is the MOA of cocaine?
Inhibits dopamine reuptake proteins (NET)
What is the blocker of Tyrosine hydroxylase?
What is the protein that stores dopamine? What inhibits this?
What is the chemical that inhibits dopamine release?
Long presynapse, short post = ?
Equal = ?
Long pre, short post = para
Equal = symp
All presynaptic ganglia use what neurotransmitter?
What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all somatic nerves?
What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all presynaptic nerves?
What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for all parasympathetic nerves?
What is the neurotransmitter and receptor utilized for sympathetic nerves?
NE/E, D, alpha, or beta adrenergic receptors
What is the neurotransmitter and receptor for sweat glands?
What is the MOA of alpha bungarotoxin?
irreversible blocking of nicotinic receptors
What is the precursor molecule for ACh?
What is the transporter for choline? What blocks this?
What is the storage protein for Ach? What inhibits this?
What is the chemical that inhibits the release of ACh?
What is the pathophysiology behind Eaton lambert syndrome?
Autoimmune against PREsynaptic Ca channels on motor end plate
Stimulation of what part of the brain leads to sweating?
What is the normal value of FEV1?
What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in obstructive lung diseases?
Decreases because FEV1 decreases more than FVC
What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in restrictive lung diseases?
Increases because both FEV1 and FVC decrease, but FVC decreases more
What are the two parts of the hypothalamus that regulate body heat? What does each do?
1. Pre-optic area (main body core sensor
2. Posterior hypothalamus (integrating center)
What is the MOA of GLP1 analogues in treating DM?
GLP1 is normally release with insulin, and promotes it activity. Thus increase GLP1 promote insulin action
What is the MOA of DPP4 inhibitors?
DPP4 normally degrades GLP1. GLP1 increases insulin action. Thus more GLP1
What is the MOA of thiazolidinediones?
Increases the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4