Special Senses III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Special Senses III Deck (42):
1

What are the signals for spicy food?

Nociceptors

2

What is the chemical for spice? What is its MOA?

Capsaicin--Opens VR1 receptor

3

What are the 5 taste sensations?

Sour
Salty
Sweet
Bitter
Umami

4

True or false: At moderate concentrations of taste stimuli, sour, salty, sweet and bitter tastes can be perceived by stimulating any area containing taste receptor cells

True

5

Where are the taste buds on the tongue?

In the trenches along papilla

6

The tip of the tongue is most sensitive to what tastes? (3)

Sweet
Umami
Salt

7

The sides and back of the tongue are more sensitive which two tastes?

Sour and bitter

8

What happens if you cut the nerve to a taste bud?

Oh yeah, it dies

9

True or false: the basal cells can turn into taste buds

True

10

True or false: we all have about the same number of taste buds

False

11

True or false: taste has a strong genetic component

True

12

What is the innervation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

C VII

13

What is the innervation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

CN IX

14

What is the innervation of the soft palate?

CN VII

15

What is the innervation of the epiglottis and esophagus?

CN X

16

Where do all of the taste tract combine? What part of the thalamus does this area then project to?

Nucleus of the solitary tract, then to the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus

17

What part of the cortex senses tastes?

Insular taste cortex

18

What is the role of the amygdala in taste?

Motivation of food

19

How are salt and sour sensed?

Opens an ion channel

20

How are sweet, bitter, and umami sensed?

G-protein coupled receptor

21

Depolarization of taste cells cause what?

release of neurotransmitters onto primary afferent nerves.

22

True or false: there is a labeled line to the taste cortex

True

23

What is the bait-shyness (Sauce Bearnaise) phenomenon?

Losing taste for a food that the brain associated with sickness

24

What is hypogeusia?

Decreased taste sensation

25

What is ageusia?

Absence of taste

26

What is parageusia?

Perversion of the sense to taste; a bad taste in the mouth

27

What is unique about CN I? (3)

Exposed
Bypasses thalamus
Regenerate

28

What type of neurons are the olfactory nevelets?

Bipolar neurons

29

How do we smell stuff (how do the nervelets sense odors)?

Binding of odoriferous molecule to receptor on cilia of olfactory receptor cell.

30

What are the cells that produce mucus for the olfactory bipolar cells?

Bowman's glands

31

What do odiferous molecules bind to?

G-protein coupled receptors

32

How many different functional odorant receptors in humans?

around 400

33

Olfactory neurons expressing the same type of olfactory receptor project where?

The same glomeruli

34

True or false: there is one receptor for every odor

False--An odorant might interact with several different types of olfactory receptors

35

What is the function of the neurons that project from the olfactory bulb to the gustatory cortical areas?

Olfactory and gustatory signals may be integrated here to generate the perception of flavor.

36

What is the route of the olfactory projections that go to the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus?

projects to the orbitofrontal cortex

37

What is the function of the orbitofrontal cortex?

This cortical area is thought to be involved in the perception and discrimination of odors

38

What is the role of the limbic system in the olfactory system?

probably mediate affective component of odors - whether odor pleasant or unpleasant

39

What is specific anosmia?

lowered sensitivity to a specific odorant even though sensitivity to other odorants seems normal

40

What is general anosmia?

Complete loss of sense of smell

41

Is hyposmia transient or chronic?

Either

42

What happens to odor sensitivity in Alzheimer's disease?

greatly diminished or distorted sense of smell