Male Physiology Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Male Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Physiology Deck (115):
1

What are the two metabolic products of testosterone?

Dihydrotestosterone and estradiol

2

The production of sperm and testosterone in the testes is regulated by what part of the brain?

The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis

3

What does the epididymis connect?

Rete testis and vas deferens

4

What keeps sperm in an inactive state in the epididymis?

The cells of the epididymis secrete H+ to acidify the luminal fluid, which keeps sperm in an inactive state

5

The vas deferens connects what two places?

epididymis and the seminal vesicles

6

What is the enlarged space located at the juncture between the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles, and what is its function?

the ampulla Store sperm

7

What is the path of travel of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the urethra? (7, starting at and including the seminiferous tubules)

Seminiferous tubules Rete testes Epididymis Vas Deferens Ampulla Ejaculatory duct Urethra

8

Where are aging sperm reabsorbed?

Epididymis

9

Where are sperm stored?

Vas deferens

10

What are the two erectile tissues in the penis?

1 x Corpus spongiosum 2x Corpus cavernosum

11

What part of the male genitalia produces the largest portion of semen?

Seminal vesicles (60%)

12

What is in seminal fluid that provides energy for sperm?

Fructose

13

What is in seminal fluid that causes the cervical environment to be more favorable for sperm survival and promotes peristalsis in the uterus and fallopian tubes?

Prostagladins

14

What is in seminal fluid that causes semen to coagulate after ejaculation? Why is coagulation important?

Fibrinogen Aids in holding the semen in deeper regions of the vagina, closer to the cervix

15

What attaches to sperm and serves to suppress motility of sperm in the coagulated semen?

Seminogelin

16

What is the main function of the prostate?

Secretes fluid for semen

17

Prostatic fluid constitutes approx. what % of the volume of semen?

39%

18

What is the function of prostatic acid phosphatase that the prostate secretes?

Unknown

19

What is the function of profibrinolysin (Plasminogen) that the prostate secretes?

dissolves coagulated semen

20

What is the function of the HCO3 that the prostate secretes?

Neutralizes acidic environment of the cervix

21

What is the function of PSA that the prostate secretes?

PSA hydrolyzes seminogelin, which increases sperm motility.

22

The prostate is an androgen sensitive tissue. Over 90% of testosterone that enters prostatic cells is converted to what? What does this do?

dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase. DHT is the primary regulator of prostatic growth

23

What is the function of the bulbourethral glands?

Secretes mucus into the urethra upon arousal

24

What is the function of the ampulla?

Hold sperm Contracts to propel sperm

25

What are the three accessory glands of the male reproductive system?

Seminal vesicle Prostate Cowper glands

26

What are the three different portions of the epididymis?

Cauda Corpus Caput

27

In what third of the epididymis are sperm most mature?

Cauda

28

What are the cells in the testes that produce testosterone from cholesterol?

Cells of Leydig

29

Where are the leydig cells located?

In the peritubular compartment of the testes

30

Where are the sertoli cells located?

in the intratubular compartment

31

What are the functions of the sertoli cells? (3)

Provide environment for germ cells to develop Stem cell niche Produce and secrete androgen

32

Is spermatogenesis synchronous or asynchronous?

asynchronous

33

GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile fashion. What controls the frequency of these pulsations?

Pulse generator of the Hypothalamus

34

What are the steps of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis?

1. GnRH secreted to pituitary gonadotrophs, which secrete LH and FSH

35

What is the path of LH production?

Sent to Leydig cells, where they increase testosterone synthesis

36

What is the path of FSH?

Go to sertoli cells, to produce ABP

37

What hormone controls sertoli cell proliferation and seminiferous tubule growth?

FSH

38

Why is it important to have a pulsatile secretion of GnRH?

Desensitization of the gonadotroph cells

39

Once LH is secreted into the circulation, it travels to the testes and binds to what?

G protein-coupled receptors on Leydig cells

40

Activation of LH receptors increases what? What does this lead to?

Activation of LH receptors increases intracellular cAMP levels, which leads to an increase in the synthesis of steroidogenic enzymes that control the production of testosterone

41

Where is the testes are the blood vessels, macrophages, CT etc: the peritubular space, or the intratubular

Peritubular

42

What are the cells that produce the androgen binding protein, and what are they signalled by?

Sertoli cell, receive signal via FSH from pituitary gonadotropes

43

 How does LH increase the production of testosterone from the Leydig cells?

increasing the expression of cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, thereby, increasing conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone

44

How does testosterone increase sperm synthesis?

diffuses into sertoli cells

45

What is the feedback mechanism for testosterone?

directly inhibits the secretion of both LH and FSH from the pituitary gonadotropes

46

How does testosterone inhibit the secretion of LH? (2)

Can change to DHT and E2, and inhibitsecretion of GnRH and LH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively.

47

How does FSH exert its effects on the sertoli cells?

Inducing the synthesis and secretion of androgen binding protein (ABP) by the Sertoli cells

48

How does ABP facilitate spermatogenesis?

by concentrating testosterone at the site of spermatogenesis

49

The testosterone concentration is 100-fold greater the area surrounding the developing sperm than in the blood stream. What allows for this wicked increase?

Androgen binding protein

50

How do Sertoli cells inhibit the production of FSH?

Produce inhibin, which can travel in the blood stream to the anterior pituitary, where it selectively inhibits FSH production.

51

What are the two, broad categories of androgen effects?

1. Androgenic functions 2. Metabolic functions

52

What are the androgenic functions of testosterone?

actions on the male reproductive tract and main secondary male sexual characteristics

53

What are the metabolic functions of testosterone?

actions on the nonreproductive tissues such as muscle, bone, bone marrow, kidney, and liver

54

What is inhibin produced by, and what does it act on to inhibit FSH secretion?

Produced by sertoli cells, and inhibits Pituitary gonadotrops

55

GnRH agonists are used to reduce androgen synthesis in prostate CA. What is the MOA behind this?

Causes desensitization in the gonadotrophs in the pituitary,

56

LH binds to what type of G protein on Leydig cells? (Gs, Gi, or Gq)?

Gs

57

When testosterone diffuses from the Leydig cells into the sertoli cells, it is acted upon by what enzyme? What does this produce?

Aromatase, producing estradiol

58

Draw out the cholesterol synthesis pathway.

A image thumb
59

What is the rate limiting step of the testosterone synthesis pathway? (include substrate, enzyme and product)

Cholesterol to pregnenolone via cholesterol desmolase

60

LH increases the expression of which enzyme in the testosterone synthesis pathway?

Cholesterol desmolase (also called cholesterol desmolase or P450scc)

61

What is the enzyme found in places such as the prostate, that converts testosterone into the more potent hormone dihydroxytestosterone (DHT)?

5alpha-reductase

62

What is the enzyme that converts testosterone into estradiol in places like the brain, adipose tissue, testes, and liver?

Aromatase

63

What are the two ways in which LH regulates the production of testosterone?

1. Expression of cholesterol desmolase 2. Increases the rate of transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria

64

When do the first two spikes of testosterone occur in a male?

fetal, and neofetal

65

What causes testosterone to fluctuate throughout the day?

The pulsatile nature of GnRH

66

What are the two major proteins in the blood stream that binds to testosterone?

sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin (40/60 split)

67

Is testosterone that is bound to albumin available to a cell? How about if bound to SHBG?

Available only if bound to albumin, NOT SHBG

68

What are the two factors that decrease the circulating amount of testosterone in the blood as men age?

Decreased synthesis Increased SHBG

69

Testosterone freely crosses the cell membrane and into the cell because of its lipophilicity. Once in the cell, what does it do/bind to? Where is this?

Binds to androgen receptor in the cytoplasm. This complex can then go into the nucleus, and increase transcription

70

What is the enzyme found in the cytoplasm of cells that converts testosterone to estradiol?

p450 aromatase

71

What is the relative binding affinity of DHT for the androgen receptor protein compared to testosterone?

DHT have much higher affinity

72

What are the two main androgens produced in the adrenal glands?

Androstenedione and DHEA

73

Androstenedione and DHEA are not very potent hormones relative to testosterone, but they can be converted to testosterone in some tissues. What is the enzyme that does this?

17beta-OHD

74

What are the three main effects of testosterone?

1. Internal genitalia 2. Increases muscle 3. Erythropoiesis

75

What are the two main effects of DHT?

Do stuff to external genitalia Increase hair follicles

76

What is the main effect of estradiol?

Bone development

77

What are the two main metabolic effects of testosterone?

1. Increases metabolic rate 2. Inhibits lipid accumulation

78

How are the spermatogonia developed in the male fetus?

Primordial germ cells migrate to the basal compartment of the testes and line the seminiferous tubules

79

What is the immunoprivileged site in the testes? What prevents the immune system from entering?

between the Sertoli cells--adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubule Tight junction between sertoli cells

80

What happens to spermatogonia as they migrate up the sides of the Sertoli cells in the space between them, towards the seminiferous tubule?

Maturation to spermatocytes

81

What are the maturation stages of spermatogonia to sperm?

1. Spermatogonia 2. Primary spermatocytes 3. Secondary spermatocytes 4. Spermatids

82

What is spermiogenesis?

WHen spermatids gain flagella and mature to sperm

83

What is spermiation?

Release of spermatids into the seminiferous tubules

84

What are the two main hormones that act to produce sperm?

1. Testosterone 2. FSH

85

What are the two roles that testosterone plays in the development of sperm?

1. Stimulates transcription of genes in sertoli cells 2. Converted to estradiol

86

What are the three roles of FSH in spermatogenesis?

1. Increase ABP 2. Increases aromatase 3. Stimulates growth factors in Sertoli cells

87

Why can anabolic steroid administration reduce spermatogenesis?

Feedback to inhibit LH and FSH production **Loss of FSH** despite presence of testosterone

88

What hormone is the main regulator of spermatogenesis?

FSH

89

What is the first step of spermiogenesis?

Golgi buds off acrosomal vesicle

90

What is the next step in spermatogenesis after the Golgi produces the acrosomal vesicle?

Acrosomal vesicle moves to one pole of the elongating nucleus forming the acrosomal cap

91

What is the next step in spermatogenesis after the acrosomal vesicle moves to one pole of the elongating nucleus forming the acrosomal cap?

Centrioles migrate to the end of opposite to the cap and form the flagellum.

92

What is the next step in spermatogenesis after the centrioles migrate to the end of opposite to the cap and form the flagellum?

Flagellum elongates

93

What is the next step in spermiogenesis after the flagella elongates?

Mitochondria migrate to the tail end of the sperm

94

What is the next step in spermiogenesis after the mitochondria migrate to the flagellar end of the sperm?

Sertoli cells phagocytose excess cytoplasm

95

What is the function of the blood testes barrier beside immunoprivilege?

Maintenance of fluid composition

96

What does hypergonadism lead to?

Precocious puberty

97

What are the two tumor causes of hypergonadism?

Hypotahalmic or androgen producing tumors

98

What are the two non-tumor causes of Hypergonadism?

LH receptor mutations Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

99

What, generally, is hypogonadism?

Androgen deficiency

100

What is the cause of primary hypogonadism? Why is there higher levels of FSH and LH?

Testicular dysfunction leads to a decrease in testosterone production (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) Higher levels d/t lack of feedback via testosterone

101

What are the two disease processes discussed in class that lead to primary hypogonadism?

Cryptorchidism Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

102

What is secondary hypogonadism?

Decrease in circulating gonadotropins (hypotrophic hypogonadism)

103

hypergonadotropic hypogonadism = ? Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism = ? (primary vs secondary)

hypergonadotropic hypogonadism = primary Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism = Secondary

104

What is Kallmann syndrome? MOA?

Secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism inherited malfunction of GnRH neurons

105

Parasympathetic or sympathetic: male erection?

Para

106

Parasympathetic or sympathetic: luberication?

Para

107

Parasympathetic or sympathetic: emission?

Symp

108

What lubricates the urethra?

Bulbourethral glands secrete mucus

109

What happens during the emission stage of male sexual arousal? (3)

1. Ampulla contracts 2. Seminal vesicles contract 3. Bladder sphincter contracts

110

What is the mechanism behind an erection?

Vasodilation, sinusoidal spaces fill with blood, and compress veins

111

What causes the vasodilation in an erection? (3 chemicals)

Parasympathetic nerve terminals release acetylcholine, nitric oxide (NO), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).

112

What is the effect of Ach in an erection?

Triggers NO release

113

What is the MOA of NO?

INduces G protein and cGMP, causing relaxation of smooth muscles of arterioles

114

What terminates an erection?

Sympathetic nerve activity which promotes arterial constriction

115

What is the MOA of viagra?

Inhibits the phosphodiesterase the degrades cGMP