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Physiology > Learning and Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning and Memory Deck (69):
1

What are the two divisions of learning?

Associative learning
Non-associative learning

2

What is associative learning?

Passive
Operant: (positive or neg reinforcement)

3

What are the two types of non-associative learning?

-Simple (habituation)
-complex (imprinting, observational)

4

What type of learning is habituation?

Non-associative, simple

5

What type of learning is observation?

Non-associative, simple

6

What is the process of learning? (3)

-Attention to sensation
-Stored short term
-Rehearsing = encoding = long term

7

What is the term that describes how memory is stored with some sort of context?

Codification

8

What is associative learning?

Relationship between two or more stimuli

9

What is working memory?

Holding of information in a useable for for basic cognitive activities

10

What are the three sources of working memory?

-Sensory input
-short term
-long term

11

When does working memory mature?

Late in developmental stages

12

True or false: working memory is a fragile process

True

13

What part of the brain mediates working memory?

Prefrontal cortex

14

What are the two qualitative categories of memory? Which is explicit/implicit?

Declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)

15

What are the two types of declaritive memory?

Episodic
Semantic

16

Where is declarative memory stored?

Hippocampus
Temporal lobe

17

What are the three types of non-declaritive memory?

Priming
Procedural
Associative

18

What is episodic memory?

Events

19

What is semantic memory?

General knowledge and facts without reference to time and place

20

Where is priming memory stored?

Neocortex

21

Where is procedural memory stored?

Striatum

22

Where is associative memory stored?

Amygdala if emotional
Cerebellum if motor

23

What is priming?

Seeing something and recalling facts about it

24

What are the three domains of memory?

Cognitive
Psychomotor
Affective

25

What is cognitive memory?

To recall, calculate, discuss

26

What is psychomotor memory?

Dance, swim ski etc

27

What is affective memory?

To like something, love someone etc

28

What is the major structural part of the brain involved in episodic memory?

Medial temporal lobes

29

What is the major structural part of the brain involved in procedural memory?

Basal ganglia, cerebellum

30

What is the major structural part of the brain involved in working memory? (spatial and phonological parts)

prefrontal cortex, for spatial

Broca's/Wernicke's for phonological

31

What is habituation?

Diminished response following a stimuli

32

What is sensitization?

Enhancement of a response by addition of another stimuli

33

What is imprinting?

Bonding

34

What is vicarious or latent non-associative memory?

Familiarity
Imitation

35

What is acquisition in terms of memory?

Input

36

Where does reconsolidation occur in the brain?

Hippocampus

37

What does consolidation require?

Sleep

38

What is memory extinction?

Loss of memory

39

What occurs in the information holding period?

Recurrent circuitry

40

What is the basis of memory formation?

Increased connection transmission between axons

41

What is the receptor that is involved in memory?

NMDA receptors

42

What is synaptic plasticity?

Ability of a neuron to adapt to new stimuli

43

What are axon spines? What happens to them during learning?

Branches off of axons there synapses occur

Increase in number

44

What are the two processes that take place to turn short term memory into long term?

Consolidation
Translocation

45

Where is long term memory stored?

Throughout the cortex (codification)

46

How do we retrieve memory?

Bring it back into short term memory

47

What is potentiation?

Following a strong,
sustained stimulus or high frequency stimulus, the response to the
previously defined stimulus is greatly enhanced

48

Do the long term potentiation changes occur at the presynaptic terminal, or the postsynaptic one?

Both

49

True or false: synaptogenesis plays a role throughout life

True

50

What are the changes that take place during sleep to consolidate memory?

Memory goes from hippocampus to neocortex during theta rhythm

51

What happens to the pathways that are formed with memory/learning when we recall it?

Same pathways are activated

52

What are the three structures involved in active forgetting? Who affects whom?

Prefrontal cortex
Amygdala
Hippocampus

--prefrontal cortex inhibits the other two

53

What are the intrinsic factors that affect modulation of new memory?

Developing stages
Aging
Hormones

54

What are the two main external impacts on memory?

Stress
Concussion

55

What is anterograde amnesia?

Inability to form new memories

56

What causes anterograde amnesia?

Primarily a defect in consolidation though it could involve
acquisition

57

What does the left hippocampus do in memory?

verbal information (words, writing)
[broad generality]

58

What does the right hippocampus do in memory?

- nonverbal information (complex visual
and auditory patterns) [broad generality]

59

Anterograde amnesia affects what types of memory? Which type does it not affect?

Declarative, not procedural

60

What is the MOA of memory loss with anesthesia?

Impairment of acquisition and consolidation

61

What is retrograde amnesia?

Inability to recall previously stored memories

62

What is the temporal (time) quality to memories?

Older memories are more resistant to 'loss'
while new more recent memories are more vulnerable

63

What is the MOA of retrograde amnesia?

Defect in the recall, not a loss of actual information

64

What is agnosia?

Inability to recognize stimuli, commands

65

What are the four symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (hint, they all start with the letter "A")?

Aphasia
Apraxia
Agnosia
Amnesia

66

What is the most common form of cortical dementia in humans?

Alzheimer's

67

What are the two proteins involved in Alzheimer's?

Neurofibrillary tangles (tau)

Beta-amyloid

68

What is the MOA of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease? Where in the brain does this occur (3)?

Neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain

69

What structure is damaged in Alzheimer's that causes anterograde amnesia? Retrograde?

Anterograde = Hippo
Retro = Cortex and forebrain