Flashcards in Learning and Memory Deck (69):
What are the two divisions of learning?
What is associative learning?
Operant: (positive or neg reinforcement)
What are the two types of non-associative learning?
-complex (imprinting, observational)
What type of learning is habituation?
What type of learning is observation?
What is the process of learning? (3)
-Attention to sensation
-Stored short term
-Rehearsing = encoding = long term
What is the term that describes how memory is stored with some sort of context?
What is associative learning?
Relationship between two or more stimuli
What is working memory?
Holding of information in a useable for for basic cognitive activities
What are the three sources of working memory?
When does working memory mature?
Late in developmental stages
True or false: working memory is a fragile process
What part of the brain mediates working memory?
What are the two qualitative categories of memory? Which is explicit/implicit?
Declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)
What are the two types of declaritive memory?
Where is declarative memory stored?
What are the three types of non-declaritive memory?
What is episodic memory?
What is semantic memory?
General knowledge and facts without reference to time and place
Where is priming memory stored?
Where is procedural memory stored?
Where is associative memory stored?
Amygdala if emotional
Cerebellum if motor
What is priming?
Seeing something and recalling facts about it
What are the three domains of memory?
What is cognitive memory?
To recall, calculate, discuss
What is psychomotor memory?
Dance, swim ski etc
What is affective memory?
To like something, love someone etc
What is the major structural part of the brain involved in episodic memory?
Medial temporal lobes
What is the major structural part of the brain involved in procedural memory?
Basal ganglia, cerebellum
What is the major structural part of the brain involved in working memory? (spatial and phonological parts)
prefrontal cortex, for spatial
Broca's/Wernicke's for phonological
What is habituation?
Diminished response following a stimuli
What is sensitization?
Enhancement of a response by addition of another stimuli
What is imprinting?
What is vicarious or latent non-associative memory?
What is acquisition in terms of memory?
Where does reconsolidation occur in the brain?
What does consolidation require?
What is memory extinction?
Loss of memory
What occurs in the information holding period?
What is the basis of memory formation?
Increased connection transmission between axons
What is the receptor that is involved in memory?
What is synaptic plasticity?
Ability of a neuron to adapt to new stimuli
What are axon spines? What happens to them during learning?
Branches off of axons there synapses occur
Increase in number
What are the two processes that take place to turn short term memory into long term?
Where is long term memory stored?
Throughout the cortex (codification)
How do we retrieve memory?
Bring it back into short term memory
What is potentiation?
Following a strong,
sustained stimulus or high frequency stimulus, the response to the
previously defined stimulus is greatly enhanced
Do the long term potentiation changes occur at the presynaptic terminal, or the postsynaptic one?
True or false: synaptogenesis plays a role throughout life
What are the changes that take place during sleep to consolidate memory?
Memory goes from hippocampus to neocortex during theta rhythm
What happens to the pathways that are formed with memory/learning when we recall it?
Same pathways are activated
What are the three structures involved in active forgetting? Who affects whom?
--prefrontal cortex inhibits the other two
What are the intrinsic factors that affect modulation of new memory?
What are the two main external impacts on memory?
What is anterograde amnesia?
Inability to form new memories
What causes anterograde amnesia?
Primarily a defect in consolidation though it could involve
What does the left hippocampus do in memory?
verbal information (words, writing)
What does the right hippocampus do in memory?
- nonverbal information (complex visual
and auditory patterns) [broad generality]
Anterograde amnesia affects what types of memory? Which type does it not affect?
Declarative, not procedural
What is the MOA of memory loss with anesthesia?
Impairment of acquisition and consolidation
What is retrograde amnesia?
Inability to recall previously stored memories
What is the temporal (time) quality to memories?
Older memories are more resistant to 'loss'
while new more recent memories are more vulnerable
What is the MOA of retrograde amnesia?
Defect in the recall, not a loss of actual information
What is agnosia?
Inability to recognize stimuli, commands
What are the four symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (hint, they all start with the letter "A")?
What is the most common form of cortical dementia in humans?
What are the two proteins involved in Alzheimer's?
Neurofibrillary tangles (tau)
What is the MOA of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease? Where in the brain does this occur (3)?
Neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain