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Physiology > Sleep > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sleep Deck (91):
1

What does an EEG record?

Wave of electrical activity from the pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex

2

Why are signals from an EEG averaged?

To reduce the noise of the brain and isolate the repeated signal

3

When are EEGs useful?

Evaluating MS

4

What are alpha waves associated with?

state of relaxed wakefulness in an adult with their eyes closed

5

Where in the brain are alpha waves more prominent?

occipital and parietal areas

6

When do alpha waves change to beta waves?

rhythm if eyes open or in response to other sensory stimuli. Mental concentration such as that required to do arithmetic problems will also cause a change to the beta rhythm.

7

Beta waves have a larger or smaller amplitude than alpha waves?

Smaller

8

desynchronized EEG = ?

Beta waves

9

Where are beta waves seen most prominently?

Frontal region

10

What are delta and theta waves associated with?

stages of sleep in an adult

11

What is the order of the speed of waves (alpha, beta, theta, delta)? What are the ranges of each?

Beta (13-30 hz)
Alpha (8-13 hz)
Theta (4-7)
Delta (0.5 - 3.5)

12

Why do we sleep?

increase interstitial space in the brain and contribute to the removal of potentially neurotoxic waste products

that sleep has a key role in promoting learning-dependent synapse formation

13

What type of waves are seen when you are awake with eyes open?

beta

14

What type of waves are seen when you are awake but relaxed with eyes shut?

alpha

15

What happens with sleep deprivation?

Increased eating
Lower weight

16

What happens during the awake to sleep transition?

Move from beta waves to alpha waves

17

How many stages of sleep are there?

4 + REM

18

What is stage 1 of sleep? What waves are seen here?

Transition from awake to asleep--theta waves prominent

19

What is stage 2 of sleep? What waves are seen here?

Light sleep K complexes and sleep spindles

20

What is stage 3 of sleep? What waves are seen here?

moderately deep sleep some delta waves (more than 20% less than 50%)

21

What is stage 4 of sleep? What waves are seen here?

deep sleep - delta waves more than 50% of period

22

Is there a definite transition from awake to sleep?

No

23

Sawtooth waves are indicative of what stage of sleep?

REM

24

Does the brain use more or less oxygen when in REM sleep?

Less

25

What happens to body temp and metabolic rate in REM?

Lowers

26

What happens to BP and HR in REM?

Lower

27

What happens to respiratory rate in REM?

Lower

28

What happens to the muscles in REM sleep?

Muscles relaxed but major postural adjustments made about every 20 minutes.

29

Threshold for arousal increases as EEG wave frequency does what?

Decreases (So it is harder to arouse sleeper in Stage 4 sleep than Stage 1.)

30

What hormone is released during sleep?

GH--more than 70% of GH released during the first half (mainly slow wave sleep) of a person’s nightly sleep.

31

Why is REM sleep called paradoxical sleep?

since EEG similar to awake EEG.

32

What are PGO spikes? What are these spikes associated with?

(pontine - geniculate - occipital) associated with bursts of eye movements

33

What happens to the heart and respiration in REM sleep (besides slowing)?

Irregularity

34

What are the two muscles that do not have decreased muscle tone in REM sleep?

Eyes
Respiratory muscles

35

How long does REM takes to get to?

90ish minutes

36

What are REM dreams like compared to non-REM dreams?

longer, more visual/emotional

37

RED rebound is suppressed by what type of drugs?

EtOH
Barbiturates

38

What happens during sleep for teenage females that cause them to enter puberty?

GH bursts

39

When does stage four of sleep primarily appear?

first half

40

What neurons control REM sleep (2)? What do these neurons do?

Pontine neurons--excite spinal glycinergic neurons in the medulla which inhibit alpha neurons

41

What is the neurotransmitter release in the pons that excite medullary neurons, which in turn inhibit alpha motor neurons during sleep? What is the neurotransmitter for the medullary neurons?

Glutamate


Glycine

42

True or false: the human wake cycle is close to 24 hours, and there is little to no variation in the amount of sleep required per individuals

False--the 24 hours cycle thing it true, but the amount of sleep can vary between individuals

43

What is the photopigment in retinal cells that project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

Melanopsin

44

What controls melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

45

True or false: you should not have a REM episode in the first 60 minutes of sleep

True

46

What is the amount of sleep a newborn usually gets? Age 3-5?

16-18 in newborns
10-12 in toddlers

47

What percent of newborn sleep is REM sleep?

50%

48

How much REM sleep do newborns get?

8 hours (of the total 16-18 hours they get)

49

What is the correlation between cortisol and sleep?

Peaks in the AM after sleep, declines

50

What are the cells in the eyes that are responsible for the sleep-wake cycle?

Retinal ganglion cells

51

What is the pathway of control for the pineal gland from the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus
IMLs
Superior cervical ganglion
Pineal gland

52

What happens to melatonin synthesis as light decreases?

Increases

53

What is the function of the cholinergic neurons in the pontomedullary junction?

These neurons fire at high rates during waking and REM sleep but are quiet during non-REM sleep.

54

What is the neurotransmitter utilized in the locus coeruleus in the sleep-wake cycle?

Norepi

55

What is the neurotransmitter utilized in the pontine raphe nucleus in the sleep-wake cycle?

Serotonin

56

What are the three nuclei that keep us awake?

Cholinergic nuclei
Locus Coeruleus
Raphe nuclei

57

What are the neurons that stimulate the brain stem nuclei to keep us awake? What other structure in the brain do these neurons stimulate?

Orexin neurons--also stimulate the tuberomammillary nucleus

58

What is the nucleus in the brain that inhibits the brainstem nuclei that keep us awake? What other structure does this inhibit?

VPLO--tuberomammillary nucleus

59

What is the MOA by which antihistamines cause drowsiness?

Block the stimulatory action of the Orexin neurons

60

What is the only neurotransmitter that is active in sleep? What part of sleep? Where does this neurotransmitter come from?

Acetylcholine in REM sleep

comes from the cholinergic nuclei of the pons

61

What is insomnia?

Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep during normal sleeping periods.

62

What are parasomnias?

Disorders of the sleep cycle and other non-sleep dysfunctions associated with sleep

63

What nocturnal enuresis?

Bed wetting

64

What is somnambulism?

Sleep walking

65

What is the difference between sleep terrors and nightmares?

sleep terrors: occur during non-REM sleep, different from nightmares which are bad dreams in REM sleep

66

How long are sleep apnea pauses?

at least 10 seconds

67

What is REM sleep behavior disorder?

REM sleep without atonia or hypotonia

68

What are the three types of sleep apnea?

a. central sleep apnea
b. obstructive sleep apnea
c. mixed apnea

69

What is narcolepsy?

sleep attack associated with several REM like symptoms

70

What is cataplexy?

Abrupt attack of muscle weakness and hypotonia often triggered by an emotional stimulus

71

What is sleep paralysis?

Waking up paralyzed--symptom of narcolepsy

72

What are Hypnagogic hallucinations? What disease is this seen in?

hallucinations at transitions between wakefulness and sleep

Narcolepsy

73

Sleep onset REM is a symptom of what disease?

Narcolepsy

74

What is the decreased voluntary sleep latency seen in narcolepsy?

fall asleep faster

75

What is the cause of narcolepsy?

reduction or absence of hypothalamic cells that produce and secrete orexin (hypocretin)

d/t autoimmune disease

76

What is epilepsy?

repeated seizures

77

What are the two types of seizures?

a. generalized seizure vs. partial (localized or focal) seizure

b. primarily generalized vs. secondary generalized

78

What is primarily a generalized seizure?

One that starts everywhere at once?

79

What is a secondary generalized seizure?

One that started locally and spread

80

What is generalized epilepsy?

Bilaterally symmetrical and without localized onset

81

What are tonic-clonic (grand-mal) seizures?

LOC + tonic period of increased muscle tone followed by clonic period consisting of jerky movements

82

What are postictal states?

period of confusion following the seizure that usually last ~ 5 to 30 minutes

83

What is status epilepticus?

Continued seizure without pause between--this is a medical emergency

84

What are absence (petit mal) seizures?

Transient LOC for >5 seconds w/o loss of muscle tone

85

What is the EEG pattern for absence seizures?

3 per second spike and dome (or spike and wave) pattern seen on EEG during seizure

86

Is there a postictal state with absence seizures?

No

87

What are simple partial seizures?

Seizures localized to one area of the brain that do not affect general consciousness

88

What are complex partial seizures?

Focal seizures that result in LOC

89

What are jacksonian motor seizures?

Seizures in the motor cortex

90

Where are complex seizures usually seen?

temporal or frontal lobes

91

What are the symptoms of complex partial seizures?

LOC
Verbal and/or motor automatisms can occur