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Flashcards in Final exam Deck (194)
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61

Why is the location of the carina significant to radiological techs?

It is used in portable chest radiography to aid in endotracheal tube placement.

62

How to the R&L main bronchi divide further?

The right bronchus divides into three secondary bronchi and the left divides into a secondary bronchi. Each secondary bronchi enters individual lobes of the lung.

63

How many lobes are in each lung?

Three lobes in the right lung, two lobes in the left.

64

What do secondary bronchi divide further into?

bronchioles.

65

What is at the end of each terminal bronchiole?

alveoli

66

How many alveoli do the two lungs contain?

Between 500-700 million alveoli

67

What is the main function of alveoli?

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion within the walls of the alveoli.

68

Where are the lungs located?

On each side of the thoracic cavity.

69

Where do the lungs extend to and from?

From the diaphragm to just slightly superior to the clavicles.

70

Anatomical location of lungs:

Lie against ribs anteriorly and posteriorly. The rounded apex reaches above the clavicles. The broad inferior portion of each lung is the base. The base is concave and fits over convex area of diaphragm.

71

How many lobes is the right lung made up of?

Three. Superior, middle, and inferior lobes.

72

What are the names of the fissures of the right lung?

Horizontal and oblique.

73

How many lobes is the left lung made up of?

Two. Superior and inferior.

74

What is the name of the left lung's fissure?

Oblique.

75

The left lung has no horizontal fissure and no middle lobe. The portion of the left lobe that corresponds imposition to the right middle lobe is called the:

lingula.

76

Lungs are composed of light, spongy, highly elastic substance called the:

parenchyma.

77

What allows for breathing mechanism responsible for expansion and contraction of lungs which brings oxygen into and removes carbon dioxide from blood through alveoli?

Parenchyma.

78

What is the pleura?

A double-walled, serous membrane that encloses each lung. The "walls" are the parietal pleura, which is the outer layer, and the visceral pleura, which is the inner later.

79

What does the parietal pleura attach to?

The wall of the thoracic cavity.

80

What does the visceral pleura cover?

The surface of the lungs, including dipping in between fissures and lobes.

81

What is the pleural cavity?

The potential space between parietal and visceral pleura. It contains serous fluid to prevent friction between membranes.

82

Pneumothorax:

an accumulation of air in the pleural cavity resulting in collapse of the lung. May result in partial or complete collapse of lung.

83

What is a pleural effusion?

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity.

84

What is a hemothorax?

When it is blood that is creating the pleural effusion.

85

What is empyema?

When the fluid creating the pleural effusion is pus.

86

What is pleurisy?

inflammation of the pleura. Visceral and parietal pleura "rubbing" during respiration.

87

What is the best projection/position to show fluid levels of a pleural effusion on a chest radiograph?

Lateral decubitus position with the affected side down, or the erect position.

88

What is emphysema?

An irreversible and chronic lung disease, in which alveolar air spaces become greatly enlarged as a result of alveolar wall destruction and loss of alveolar elasticity.

89

How does emphysema present on a radiograph?

Increased lung dimensions, depressed and flattened diaphragm, obscuring costophrenic angles, elongated heart shadow, radiolucent lung field.

90

If it is known that the patient has emphysema, how should one adjust exposure factors?

Emphysema requires a decrease in exposure factors from a normal chest.