Flashcards in Final exam Deck (194)
What is the pericardial sac?
A double-walled membrane that surrounds the heart.
What does the heart look like in a CT image?
The heart takes up about a quarter of the image, it is the the left of the MSP and anterior to the MCP. The esophagus is posterior to the heart and the descending aorta is between the esophagus and the thoracic vertebrae.
What can be seen on a PA chest if the technical factors are set optimally?
The lungs and other soft tissues as well as the bony thorax.
What are the radiographically important parts of the lungs?
Apex, carina, base, diaphragm, costoprhrenic angles, hilum.
Why are most lateral chest radiographs done with the left side closest to the IR?
To reduce magnification of the heart.
When looking at a left lateral chest x-ray, one can only see the left lung. Therefore, how many lobes are seen?
When looking at a left lateral chest x-ray, some of the lower lobe of the left lung extends above ----------- posteriorly, whereas some of the upper lobe extends below --------anteriorly.
The hilum (in both cases).
The posterior part of the diaphragm is the most --------- part of the diaphragm.
The right lung is usually about 1 inch shorter than the left because ---------.
the liver pushes up on the right hemidiaphragm.
The mediastimum is:
the medial portion of thoracic cavity between lungs.
The four structures of the mediastinum are:
Thymus gland, heart and great vessels, trachea, esophagus.
Describe the thymus gland:
Primary control organ of lymphatic system. It consists of 2 lobes that lie in the lower next and superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum.
At maximum development, thymus gland lies where?
Above and anterior to heart and pericardium, behind the upper sternum.
Can the thymus be seen in middle aged adults?
No, the thymus is a temporary organ, prominent in infants. Reaches its maximum size at puberty and gradually atrophies until it almost disappears as in adult.
Heart and great vessels are enclosed in what?
The heart is posterior to:
The heart is anterior to:
2/3 of the heart lies where?
To the left of the MSP.
Great vessels include:
superior and inferior vena cava, aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins.
What does the superior vena cava do?
Returns blood to the heart from upper 1/2 of the body.
What does the inferior vena cava do?
Returns blood from lower 1/2 of body.
What does the aorta do?
As the largest artery in the body, it carries blood to all parts of the body through its various branches.
What three sections are the great vessels divided into?
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, and the descending aorta.
As the aorta passes through the diaphragm, it becomes:
the abdominal aorta.
What do the pulmonary arteries and veins do?
Supply blood and return blood to and from all segments of the lungs.
The part of the trachea within the mediastinum does what?
Bifurcates into the right ad left primary bronchi.
Where is the proximal esophagus located?
Posterior to trachea and continues through mediastinum anterior to descending aorta.
True or false: The pharynx is a common passageway for both food and respiration.
The "Adam's apple" is formally referred to as the