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Flashcards in Final Exam Review Deck (81):
1

Homestead Act

law giving 160 acres and a title after 5 years of ownership and cultivation of land

2

Morrill Act

gives federal land to the states allowing for agricultural state universities to be established

3

Capitalism

an economic system in which private business runs most industries and competition thus determining how much goods cost and workers get paid

4

Monopoly

complete control over a business or industry

5

Trusts

partnerships of business owners who control businesses together

6

Black gold

nickname for oil; becomes more valuable than actual gold

7

Natvisits

favored native born Americans over immigrants; were anti-immigrants

8

Yellow Journalism

stories often published in newspapers that exaggerate the truth, but are meant to expose the problems in society

9

Political machines

similar to gangs run by politicians; political parties take control of city offices and control the entire city

10

Political bosses

people that ran cities often through use of fraud and intimidation

11

Muckrakers

investigative journalists that "raked up" and exposed the muck or filth of society

12

Americanization

the process of preparing foreign born citizens for US citizenship; also a process done to Natives to force them to adapt to American culture

13

Robber Baron

nickname given to the men who ran monopolies as a criticism of their wealth and power

14

Theodore Roosevelt

"Teddy"; Vice President who becomes the 26th President; Progressive leader who worked for reform; leader in the conservation movement

15

Gilded Age

era in American history where problems were glossed over; from the outside America seemed fine, but in reality it had many problems

16

Spanish-American War 1898

American intervention of Cuban independence from Spain because Spanish misrule in Cuba

17

"Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain"

mysterious sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Bay; Teddy Roosevelt angered; yellow journalism coined the phrase

18

Queen Liliuokalani

Queen of Hawaii before it was taken over by U.S. sugar planters; taken down; resisted U.S. forces

19

Platt Amendment 1903

U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient independent government

20

Open Door Policy

give all nations equal access to trade in China; guaranteed that China would not be taken over by any one foreign power

21

Boxer Rebellion

1900; Peaceful Harmonious Fists; "55 Days at Peking"; pro-nationalist movement in response to the spheres of influence in China; foreign powers put down the rebellion

22

Panama Canal

Panama was part of Colombia; Panamanian nationalists with U.S. backing take over Panama in "bloodless revolution"; U.S. treaty establishes right to build canal and have power over canal zone

23

U.S.S. Maine

Ship that exploded off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helped contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

24

Pearl Harbor

American naval base in Hawaii used as a refueling station for American ships

25

Nationalism

pride in one own's country

26

Militarism

glorification of a nation’s military strength

27

Trench Warfare

WWI military strategy that relied on fighting from ditches

28

Zimmerman Telegram

transmission sent from Germany to Mexico, proposing an alliance that would help Mexico regain territories lost to America

29

Selective Service Act

required men between the ages 21-30 to register for the draft (eventually lowered to 18)

30

Great Migration

movement of African Americans in the south to northern cities between 1915 and 1930

31

Sedition Act

made it illegal to speak or print anything criticizing the government during a time of war

32

Wilson's Fourteen Points

Wilson’s program for world peace; gets rejected by European powers

33

League of Nations

international body designed to prevent future wars; US does not join; it fails

34

Franz Ferdinand

heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, assassinated while visiting Sarajevo

35

Lusitania

British cruise liner carrying 128 American passengers that was attacked by German U-boats in 1915

36

18th Amendment

the banning of all manufacturing, buying or selling alcohol

37

19th Amendment

gives American women the right to vote

38

Red Scare

time of American hysteria and panic over the fear of communism spreading into America due to the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution

39

Sacco & Vanzetti

two Italian anarchist immigrants who were executed for a crime in which there was no direct evidence based on the fears of the Red Scare

40

Scopes Trial

known as the "monkey trial"; criminal trial of John Scopes, biology teacher from Tennessee who violated a state order by teaching evolution. Scopes was found guilty and had to pay a fine of $100

41

Jazz Age

era of the 1920's were jazz music dominated society; originated in New Orleans, Louisiana.

42

Roaring Twenties

era of the 1920's where a loud, fast paced society took over most of America

43

Bootlegging

obtaining or making your own alcohol illegally

44

flappers

new shocking identity for women who challenged traditional views of women; often wore short hair, loose clothing, and had an independent spirit

45

Henry Ford

automobile manufacturer who used an assembly line to produce cars at a high rate; paid his workers $5 a day

46

A. Mitchell Palmer

Attorney General of the U.S. whose house was bombed; suspected communists were blamed for the bombing; he starts a "red hunting" to eliminate communists from the US

47

rugged individualism

the idea that one can help themselves out of their own troubles; philosophy used by President Hoover putting the ownership of getting out of the depression on oneself and not expecting the government to help out

48

Buying on Margin

the purchasing stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future; borrowing money to buy stocks.

49

Hoovervilles

shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the depression; the name given to them shows that the people blamed Hoover directly for the depression

50

Fireside Chat

the informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. it was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression

51

Franklin Roosevelt - FDR

A Democrat who became the United States president in 1933; his program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression became known as the "New Deal" and he remained president through WWII

52

Herbert Hoover

was the president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the U.S in the beginning of the Great Depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives; becomes the "Most hated man in America by 1932": loses the Election of 1932 by a landslide

53

bank holiday

President Roosevelt's plan to restore the American faith in banks: closed the banks for four days for money to be printed and put back into the banking system

54

isolationism:

policy of staying out of world affairs

55

Invasion of Pearl Harbor

surprise attack by the Japanese on December 7, 1941 in Hawaii, “the day that will live in infamy”

56

Harry Truman

33rd US President, FDR’s Vice President becomes president when FDR dies, forced to decide to use nuclear warfare

57

Rosie the Riveter

cartoon symbol of American working woman used to encourage women working during WWII

58

Japanese Internment Camps:

labor and housing camps in CO, WY and AZ were Americans of Japanese descent were forced to live after the bombing of Pearl Harbor

59

Selective Training and Service Act, 1941

first time peacetime draft, required all men from ages of 21-35 (later 18-45) to register to be soldiers

60

Zoot-Suit Riots

racist attacks on Mexican Americans throughout California by members of the US Navy

61

island-hopping

an Allied tactic where only certain islands were targeted for attack in the Pacific - these islands had strategic significance

62

Cold War

long power struggle between the US and USSR from 1945-1991 waged mostly on political and economic issues

63

Korean War (Conflict)

Known as the "Forgotten War"; civil war between North (communist) and South (democratic) Korea 1950-1953; US supported South Korea to stop the spread of communism

64

Policy of containment

US policies to use several different methods to stop the spread of communism

65

domino theory

fear that if one country falls to communism the neighboring countries will as well

66

Nikita Khruschev

leader of the USSR; allies himself with Castro; puts missiles in Cuba aiming at the US

67

Bay of Pigs

failed US mission planned by Eisenhower's administration but carried out by Kennedy's administration; attempt to overthrow Castro led by CIA trained 1,400 Cuban refugees; refugees get captured and held hostage for $53 million dollars; huge embarrassment for Kennedy

68

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962 nuclear missiles spotted in Cuba by US U-S spy planes; for 13 days the US and USSR were on the brink of nuclear war

69

Sputnik

the world's first satellite to visit space; launched by the USSR in 1957

70

Vietnam

conflict in this South East Asian country that spanned 5 US Presidents, conflict between North Vietnam (Communist) and South Vietnam (Democratic); eventually the US and United Nation forces get defeated and Vietnam becomes all one communist country

71

Iron Curtain

A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world

72

Civil Rights Movement

organized movement from 1955-1968; political movement for equality within the law consisting of both non-violent and armed resistance rebellions

73

Brown vs. Board of Ed Topeka, KS:

Supreme Court case brought forth on behalf of Linda Brown which ruled "separate is not equal", thus overturning Plessy vs. Ferguson

74

Montgomery Bus Boycott

political and social protest against racial discrimination on the Montgomery, Alabama public buses which lasted from 1955 to 1956

75

Freedom rides

orchestrated by civil right activists known as the freedom riders; interstate bus rides during the summers of 1961 and 1962 in which activists traveled from the North to the South in an effort to enforce the integration of national busing and bus terminals

76

Little Rock Nine

Nine African American high school students who attended Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in a brave attempt to desegregate the school in 1957 as a result of the Supreme Court ruling Brown vs. Board of Ed; the students were barred by the Governor of Arkansas and were escorted by the National Guard

77

sit-ins

method of civil disobedience protest made famous in 1960 by college students in Greensboro, North Carolina at a lunch counter at a department store named Woolworth's who would not serve African Americans at their counter

78

Reconstruction

plan based on rebuilding the South and reuniting the North and South following the Civil War

79

Sharecropping

a farming system that kept many southern farmers in debt since it paid for use of land with crops; made it nearly impossible for farmers to get out of poverty

80

Jim Crow laws

Laws passed in the South to enforce segregation; laws required segregated public transportation, schools, cemeteries, parks and other public places

81

Plessey v. Ferguson

Supreme Court Case of 1896 in which Supreme Court ruled separate but equal was constitutional