Flashcards in Unit 3b Reconstruction Deck (42):
Southern democrat chosen by Abraham Lincoln to be Vice President in an effort to keep the Union together prior to the Civil War, becomes President after Lincoln is assassinated
plan based on rebuilding the South and reuniting the North and South following the Civil War
a pardon; President Lincoln offered a pardon to the South to help reunite the country
all persons born in the U.S. are U.S. citizens
black men, despite having been former slaves, have the right to vote
Republicans who wanted revenge on the South, protection for the freedmen and to make sure that Republicans stayed in power; were against President Andrew Johnson and tried to get him out of office
to officially charge the President with committing a violation in an attempt to remove him from office
Ku Klux Klan
terrorist group organized by former Confederate soldiers to prevent African American men from voting and keeping white representatives in office
Ulysses S. Grant
wins election of 1868 as a Republican; lacked political experience but was a war hero; won due to the African American vote
derogatory name used by Southerners for Northerners who moved down South to help freedmen in the South
derogatory name used by Southerners against other Southerners who backed the Union and supported Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877
Agreement between Presidential candidates Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden allowing the Republican to become President in return for taking federal troops out of the South
a farming system that kept many southern farmers in debt since it paid for use of land with crops; made it nearly impossible for farmers to get out of poverty
Jim Crow laws
Laws passed in the South to enforce segregation; laws required segregated public transportation, schools, cemeteries, parks and other public places
Plessey v. Ferguson
Supreme Court Case of 1896 in which Supreme Court ruled separate but equal was constitutional
Booker T. Washington
former slave, political leader, educator & reformer who encouraged newly freed African Americans to gain economic independence by learning trades and getting an education and to peacefully accept discrimination for the time being
leader in the black protest movement of Reconstruction who urged newly freed African Americans to protest and rise against discrimination; helped establish the NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; a civil rights organization primarily founded during Reconstruction to inform Americans about the violence against African Americans after the Civil War
What was Andrew Johnson's plan to readmit the Southern states?
Each state had to form a new state government. It had to obey all federal laws and deal fairly with newly freed African Americans. But, his plan allowed Southern states to pass black code laws which denied many civil rights to African Americans.
Examples of how Southerners used black codes to deny African Americans their rights
They denied African Americans many civil rights like the right to vote, act as jurors in trails, take certain jobs, own land or have a gun
How did the Freedman's Bureau help former slaves?
It built hospitals and schools for blacks in the South. It hired black and white teachers from the North and South
Compare and contrast Reconstruction's successes and failures
Successes were the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments, giving freedom and citizenship to African Americans, public schools and industries were expanded in the South. Slavery was over. Failures: after Reconstruction southern states passed new laws again restricting the rights of African Americans, they tried to prevent blacks from voting
Examples of how voting rights continued to be denied in the South
Whites set up voting booths far from African American communities or changes the location of the booths without informing blacks. Some states required a poll tax or payment to vote that blacks could not afford. Some places made blacks take reading tests when they had not been allowed during slavery to learn to read or write. Some said you could only vote if your father or grandfather voted before 1867 when blacks did not have the right to vote
What were Andrew Johnson's views on Congress's Reconstruction Acts and how did this almost lead to his impeachment?
Johnson apposed the 14th Amendment (blacks citizenship) and many of the Acts. He thought the Acts were unlawful because they were passed without the representation of Southern states in Congress. He tried to block the passage of several laws that granted more right to African Americans. Congress was angry when he did this and tired to impeach him but lost by one vote
What is a carpetbagger?
A Northerner who came to the south to help with the rebuilding of the South and was identified by thier carpet suitcase.
What was President Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan?
10% of a southern state's population had to take an oath of loyalty in order to rejoin the Union and form a new state government.
Why did President Lincoln NOT get to fight for his Reconstruction Plan?
He was assassinated
"All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of the U.S. No state shall deprive any persons of life, liberty, or property, without due process of the law..." Which amendment is this?
Why did Congress (Radical Republicans) disagree with President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan?
They thought President Johnson was too easy ("soft") on the South.
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude...shall exist within the U.S." Which Constitutional amendment is described here?
After the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments and the end of Reconstruction, African Americans experienced political, social and economical inequalities. How was that possible?
Jim Crow Laws passed by the Southern government.
What did General William T. Sherman want for all Freedmen?
40 acres and a mule- a land grant given to former slaves
What was the reason that African Americans did NOT achieve economic independence during Reconstruction?
African Americans did not have their own land to farm on and instead had to become sharecroppers.
What social group turned violent and threatened African Americans to keep them from voting?
The Ku Klux Klan
What was the purpose of the Black Codes?
To keep Freedmen from being free
What were Jim Crow Laws?
Laws that enforced segregation
What event signaled the end of Reconstruction?
The ordering of federal troops out of the South, which were there to protect the newly freed former slaves.
Ulysses S. Grant
18th U.S. president; served two terms marred by corruption and scandal
Crédit Mobilier scandal
railroad construction company sold stocks to Congressmen under Grant's administration in exchange for tax breaks and land grants; embarrasses President Grant
Depression of 1873
economic depression starts in Europe, lowers prices of cotton and iron, railroad industry goes bankrupt; economic problems blamed on President Grant