GastroOesophageal Pathology Flashcards Preview

Jason's MD2 ED/Amb Rotation > GastroOesophageal Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in GastroOesophageal Pathology Deck (33):
1

normal oesophagus epithelium cells are?

stratified squamous

2

normal stomach cell types?

glandular epithelium

3

causes of haematemesis?

gastric ulcer
oesophagus varices
erosive gastritis
mallory weiss
upper GIT tumour
duodenal ulcer

4

causes of obstructive dysphagia?

luminal
mural
extramural

5

3 most important cancers of oesophagus?

squamous cell carcinoma (common)
adenocarcinoma (common)
SCC (rare)

6

2 most important tumours of stomach

adenocarcinoma
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours

7

oesophagus SCC risk factors, 2 major?

smoking
ETOH

dietary
NaOH: structures
Fe deficiency

8

oesophagus SCC, why is high cell turn over bad?

more chance of errors in replication >> SCC

9

adenocarcinoma of oesophagus precursors? and progression?

chronic GORD
Barrett's
dysplasia
adenocarcinoma in situ
invasive adenocarcinoma

10

what does reflux oesophagitis do to the oesophageal spincter?

decreased tone,
ETOH, caffeine, preg, meds

11

progression of adenocarcinoma of oesophagus?

normal
barrett's
low grade dyplasia
high grade dysplais
invasive carcinoma

12

who gets eosinophilic oesophagitis? cause? treatment?

young people with a history of allergy
looks like trachea
caused by food allergens

Rx with steroids

13

full Mallory-Weiss tear into mediastinum called?

Boarhaves

14

causes of achalasia?

amyloidosis
infections
diabetes

15

what does scleroderma do to oesophagus?

fibrosis of wall, submucosa

16

common tumour of stomach?

adenocarcinoma

17

most important cause of gastric cancer?

chronic helicobacter gastritis

18

gastric carcinoma 2 types

intestinal - progression from helicobacter
diffuse

19

diffuse type gastric carcinoma prognosis? and what is classic cell type?

poor prognosis
signet ring cell carcinoma (not adhesive)

20

what is linitis plastica?

type of diffuse type gastric carcinoma, causing gastroparesis, 'bottle' stomach

21

what are low grade MALTomas?

indolent B cell lymphomas

22

MALTomas is found where?

localised to stomach for a long time

23

how to treat MALTomas?

can respond to anti helicobactor pylori treatment alone!

24

MALTomas left untreated?

progress to high grade lymphomas (diffuse large B-cell)

25

what are Gastrointestinal stromal tumours?

primary tumours of stomach

26

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours arrive from?

pacemaker cells of the gut (interstitial cells of Cajal)

27

enteric nervous system found in which layer?

submuscosa
mesenchymal tumour

28

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours treatment?

Imatinib to block c-kit (cell membrane bound tyrosine kinase)

29

predictor of Gastrointestinal stromal tumours?

larger size is more malignant

30

causes of gastritis?

helicobacter
chemical irritant
autoimmune
lymphocytic

31

why does helicobacter cause duodenal ulcers?

H, pylori causes increased acid secretion and can erode the duodenum

32

benign gastric ulcers vs. adenocarcinoma looks

pit-like

vs. volcano-like

33

layers of oesophagus?

epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosa
serosa