Flashcards in Geography- case study- T- mass tourim- kenya Deck (8)
Where is Kenya?
In Africa, on the East coast in line with the equator
What are the human attractions of Kenya?
Safaris- to see the 'Big Five', English speaking guides
Balloon safaris- to observe the wildlife
Treks- up Mt Kenya, (porter, cook, guide)
Local tribes- visiting, traditional dances e.t.c
Glass-bottom boat trips- to see the coral reefs
Accommodation- safari lodges, beach hotels
Why has tourism developed in Kenya?
- Kenya was ahead of other countries in protecting its wildlife (45 national parks and game reserves)
-charter flights began in the 1960s
-government has promoted tourism (seen as a way to tackle unemployment and poverty)
- Kenya was a lot more prosperous than its neighbours (Somalia racked by civil war)
What were the positive effects of tourism in Kenya?
- Kenya is relatively poor, relies massively on inflows from foreign tourists ($1 billion in 2007)
- provides a lot of jobs in the service industry (in 2007 direct employment was 250,000)
-other economic sectors benefited because of the multiplier effect (increases demands of goods and services from other industry)
-without the tourist income the government would not have created the wildlife parks and the land would of been ploughed up or used for grazing (more surviving wildlife because of this)
What were the negative effects of tourism in Kenya?
visitors go up and down ~ in December 2007 a disputed election result led to tribal violence= mass cancellation of bookings & its image as a peaceful location for safari and beach holidays had been badly affected. Normal visitor levels were not expected until late 2009.
coral reefs ~ boats drop anchors on reef, people take coral as souvenirs (patrols have increased and boat openers have been educated
-game parks~ some poorly paid staff are open to bribery, ignore poaching and do not take action against drivers who go off the track to get closer to the animals and earn higher tips (disturb the wildlife- wildebeest hace fallen from 800,000 to 300,000 in 20 years- and increased soil erosion). In some safaris there is a too high concentration of visitors in too small an area (big queues)
Conflicts with local people~ the Masaai (a tribe) were driven off land to make way for wild animals when games parks were created. Farmers have a shortage of grazing land along with rapid population growth (farmers forced to farm near parks-crops get trampled/ cattle eaten). Villages injured, sometimes killed by wild animals but they are not allowed to kill them. Less than 2% of money spent at the Masai Mara Park benefited the local Masai people.
What are the strategies for the future?
The Kenya national trust emphasise the need to:
-diversify the tourist product range, developing new tourist activities such as adventure activities on rivers (rafting)
-achieve a better distribution of tourist activities throughout the country to reduce environmental pressures on tourist hot spots
How are wildlife parks environmental concerns being dealt with?
A new programme, announced in 2007, aims to curb tourist numbers in over- visited parks while at the same time doubling work entry fees. Setting a higher price in hotels and camps and adding a premium to be used for game park improvements.