Flashcards in Geography- Tourism Deck (69)
What is domestic tourism?
People going on holiday in their own country
What is international tourism?
People going on holiday in a different country
In most countries is domestic or international tourism bigger?
In most countries domestic tourism is between four and five times greater than international tourism
What does the tourist industry provide?
Jobs and income in all countries
What are the top six tourist destinations?
France, Spain, the USA, China, Italy and the U.K.
What three factors affect tourism growth?
-social and economic factors
-improvements in technology
-expansion of holiday choice
Explain how social and economic factors affect tourism growth
Incomes are higher and more money is available for luxuries such as tourism
Most families have two working parents whereas in the past it was usually one
People have more leisure time (holiday leave time has increased)
Life expectancy has risen so more people are retired and have more times to travel
Many have good pensions and can afford several trips a year
How have improvements in technology affected tourism growth?
Travel today is quick and easy
Flying has become cheaper (booking online is quick and easy)
(In 2008 the rapid rise in oil prices had an impact on the cost of flights and more people took domestic holidays to save money)
How have tourist attractions affected tourism growth?
Many people choose to visit city's to enjoy the culture associated with museums, art galleries, architecture or shops and restaurants.
The natural landscape is also a major pull for tourists (particularly mountains such as the Alps or coastlines such as the Caribbean)
Why is tourism particularly important In less well off countries such as the Carribean?
Around 80% of Barbados's national income comes from tourism.
What are the benefits of tourism in poorer countries?
-Jobs e.g waiters, souvenir shop assistants and tour guides
-tourists spend their holiday money in pounds or dollars and this foreign exchange is essential in poorer countries
-Many governments tax visitors to help pay for the extra services they use e.g. Water supplies, drainage, electricity, roads
-extra jobs are created indirectly e.g hotels buying produce from local suppliers
-many small businesses have been started up to serve the tourists themselves and supply the services they demand e.g taxis
-it is seen as a chance to losses their dependence on exporting a single commodity (e.g bananas)
What is a multiplier effect?
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
Give an example of the multiplier effect
Money spent in hotels helps to create jobs directly in the hotel, but it also creates jobs indirectly elsewhere in the economy. The hotel, for example, has to buy food from local farmers, who may spend some of his money on fertilisers which in turn creates jobs for sellers of fertiliser.
What is leakage?
This is where profits made by tourism are taken out of the country. E.g. where UK owned travel agents like Thomas Cook are running the holiday, the profits do not benefit the host country.
Give an example of leakage
In Thailand, estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food e.t.c)
What are the basic attractions of coastal areas?
Sun, sand and sea (not guaranteed sand in the UK)
Winter beach holidays are to the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Asia
What is a key geographical factor of the coast?
What are the basic attractions of mountains?
Snow and scenery (not guaranteed winter snow in ski facilities in Scotland)
The Alps and the Rockies have guaranteed snow and more rugged and varied scenery than in the UK
What are the key geographical factors of the mountains?
Climate and relief
What are the basic attractions in the city?
Historical buildings, bridges, museums, landmarks e.t.c
Major events such as the Olympic games
Uniqueness such as Venice with its canals, Manhattan with the skyscrapers
What are the key geographical factors of the cities?
When did UK seaside holidays peak?
What are the disadvantages of tourism in poorer countries?
- many of the high paid, managerial jobs go to people from wealthier countries
- some countries have become over-dependant on tourism which causes them problems if fashions change and tourists stop coming
-many of the jobs created are low paid, service jobs
- a lot the profit from tourism, is lost through "leakage"
Why after the 1970s did British seaside resorts decline?
Package holidays abroad with guaranteed hot weather attracted people of all incomes
British weather was seen as too unreliable
Many small coastal hotels were forced to survive by housing the homeless during the 1980s, decreasing their reputation even more
What is the most visited attraction in the UK and how many visitors does it have a year?
The London eye, 3.7 million a year
How much does the UK economy earn every year from tourism and leisure?
Over £114 billion
What is a life cycle model?
A theoretical model used to describe the changes that take place as a tourist resort develops
What life cycle model is used to describe the life cycle of a tourist resort?
The butler tourist resort life cycle model
What are the six stages of the Butler resort life-cycle model?
6. Decline or rejuvenation