Flashcards in Geography- Tourism Deck (69):
What is domestic tourism?
People going on holiday in their own country
What is international tourism?
People going on holiday in a different country
In most countries is domestic or international tourism bigger?
In most countries domestic tourism is between four and five times greater than international tourism
What does the tourist industry provide?
Jobs and income in all countries
What are the top six tourist destinations?
France, Spain, the USA, China, Italy and the U.K.
What three factors affect tourism growth?
-social and economic factors
-improvements in technology
-expansion of holiday choice
Explain how social and economic factors affect tourism growth
Incomes are higher and more money is available for luxuries such as tourism
Most families have two working parents whereas in the past it was usually one
People have more leisure time (holiday leave time has increased)
Life expectancy has risen so more people are retired and have more times to travel
Many have good pensions and can afford several trips a year
How have improvements in technology affected tourism growth?
Travel today is quick and easy
Flying has become cheaper (booking online is quick and easy)
(In 2008 the rapid rise in oil prices had an impact on the cost of flights and more people took domestic holidays to save money)
How have tourist attractions affected tourism growth?
Many people choose to visit city's to enjoy the culture associated with museums, art galleries, architecture or shops and restaurants.
The natural landscape is also a major pull for tourists (particularly mountains such as the Alps or coastlines such as the Caribbean)
Why is tourism particularly important In less well off countries such as the Carribean?
Around 80% of Barbados's national income comes from tourism.
What are the benefits of tourism in poorer countries?
-Jobs e.g waiters, souvenir shop assistants and tour guides
-tourists spend their holiday money in pounds or dollars and this foreign exchange is essential in poorer countries
-Many governments tax visitors to help pay for the extra services they use e.g. Water supplies, drainage, electricity, roads
-extra jobs are created indirectly e.g hotels buying produce from local suppliers
-many small businesses have been started up to serve the tourists themselves and supply the services they demand e.g taxis
-it is seen as a chance to losses their dependence on exporting a single commodity (e.g bananas)
What is a multiplier effect?
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
Give an example of the multiplier effect
Money spent in hotels helps to create jobs directly in the hotel, but it also creates jobs indirectly elsewhere in the economy. The hotel, for example, has to buy food from local farmers, who may spend some of his money on fertilisers which in turn creates jobs for sellers of fertiliser.
What is leakage?
This is where profits made by tourism are taken out of the country. E.g. where UK owned travel agents like Thomas Cook are running the holiday, the profits do not benefit the host country.
Give an example of leakage
In Thailand, estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food e.t.c)
What are the basic attractions of coastal areas?
Sun, sand and sea (not guaranteed sand in the UK)
Winter beach holidays are to the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Asia
What is a key geographical factor of the coast?
What are the basic attractions of mountains?
Snow and scenery (not guaranteed winter snow in ski facilities in Scotland)
The Alps and the Rockies have guaranteed snow and more rugged and varied scenery than in the UK
What are the key geographical factors of the mountains?
Climate and relief
What are the basic attractions in the city?
Historical buildings, bridges, museums, landmarks e.t.c
Major events such as the Olympic games
Uniqueness such as Venice with its canals, Manhattan with the skyscrapers
What are the key geographical factors of the cities?
When did UK seaside holidays peak?
What are the disadvantages of tourism in poorer countries?
- many of the high paid, managerial jobs go to people from wealthier countries
- some countries have become over-dependant on tourism which causes them problems if fashions change and tourists stop coming
-many of the jobs created are low paid, service jobs
- a lot the profit from tourism, is lost through "leakage"
Why after the 1970s did British seaside resorts decline?
Package holidays abroad with guaranteed hot weather attracted people of all incomes
British weather was seen as too unreliable
Many small coastal hotels were forced to survive by housing the homeless during the 1980s, decreasing their reputation even more
What is the most visited attraction in the UK and how many visitors does it have a year?
The London eye, 3.7 million a year
How much does the UK economy earn every year from tourism and leisure?
Over £114 billion
What is a life cycle model?
A theoretical model used to describe the changes that take place as a tourist resort develops
What life cycle model is used to describe the life cycle of a tourist resort?
The butler tourist resort life cycle model
What are the six stages of the Butler resort life-cycle model?
6. Decline or rejuvenation
What happens in the exploration stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
Small numbers of visitors are attracted by something particular e.g good beach, cultural features
Local people have not yet developed many tourist services
What happens in the involvement stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
The local population sees the opportunities and starts to provide accommodation, food, transport, guides and other services for visitors
What happens in the development stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
Large companies build hotels and leisure complexes and advertise package holidays. Number of tourists rise dramatically. Job opportunities for local people grow rapidly.
What happens in the consolidation stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
Tourism is now a major part of the local economy, but perhaps at the expense of other types of development. Number of visitors are steady making employment more secure, however some hotels and other facilities are becoming older and unattractive, so the type of customers attracted goes downmarket. Rowdiness becomes a problem
What happens in the stagnation stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
The resort becomes unfashionable and numbers of visitors starts to decline. Businesses change hands and often fail.
What happens in the decline stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
Visitors prefer other resorts. Day trippers and weekenders become the main source of income.
What happens in the rejuvenation stage of the butler resort tourist life cycle model?
Attempts are made to modernise the resort and attract different people to enjoy new activities
What does a butler tourist resort life cycle model look like? Include the axis and labels
*check in iBook or textbook*
What is a good example of a place that compares to the Butler-tourist resort life-cycle model?
What external factors affect tourism in the UK in the early 21st century?
Exchange rates and the banking crisis
How does terrorism affect the UK tourism in the early 21st century?
The destruction of the world trade centre in New York on the 11th September 2001 had a huge impact on travel.
The USA, U.K. and EU stepped up its security overnight
London is a terrorist target (underground bombing- 7th July 2005)
In the aftermath of such events, visitor numbers decline sharply
How do exchange rates and the banking crisis affect tourism in the early 21st century?
Currency exchange rates control value for money for tourists on holiday. In 2011 the euro was high against the pound, valued at around 87p, so holidaying in France and other eurozone countries became more expensive .
As the same time £1 was worth $1.60, making the USA s much more attractive holiday destination.
Since 2008 the world has faced economic difficulties. In the UK many people have faced a pay freeze and the rate of unemployment has increased.
What is a national park?
An area where development is limited and planning controlled. And an area of beautiful and relatively wild countryside
What are the two aims of creating national parks?
To preserve and enhance an areas natural beauty
To promote people's enjoyment of the countryside
What is a honeypot site?
Somewhere that attracts a large number of tourists who, due to their numbers, place pressure on the environment and people
What was the UKs first national park?
The Peak District of Derbyshire (created in 1951)
Who owns the national parks?
Land remains privately (81%) mostly by farmers
The forestry commission, the national trust, the ministry of defence and the water authorities also own some areas.
What management tasks do the National Park Authorities need to do?
-Managing the land, undertaking conservation work, planting woodland and repairing/re-routing footpaths
-Working with and advising local landowners
-Controlling building and new commercial development
-Providing access and setting up facilities for visitors such as information centres, car parks and picnic sites
What is long haul tourism?
Tourism to places with flight times of over four hours
What is mass tourism?
Tourism on a large scale to one country or region.
This is linked to the development and consolidation phases of the Butler tourist resort life cycle model
What example of a particular purpose/ type of location attract mass tourism?
Skiing at a mountain resort or sunbathing at a beach location
What is the cause of increasing long haul tourism?
More people fly to countries such as Pakistan to visit friends and family
People have greater experience of travel and greater desire to broaden their horizons
Increasing number of people want to see environments, natural attractions and experience cultures different from their own
More people now have the money and the time
What advantages are there of mass tourism?
-brings more jobs with a more reliable wage
-new infrastructure must be put in place for tourists
-construction jobs often go to local people (temporary)
-now leisure facilities may be open to local people
-the economy benefits from tourism through taxation, the creation of jobs and spending money in shops, hotels and attractions
What are the disadvantages of mass tourism?
-the activity may be seasonal (local people out of work for the rest of year)
-the industry is dominated by large travel companies who sell package holidays by brochure or on the Internet
-new construction can damage the environment
-lower and middle income customers are the target market (doesn't appeal to wealthy people)
-few local employees are well paid (higher paid jobs taken by people from companies involved in developing the resort)
-investing companies are usually based in foreign countries (profits therefore go outside the tourist country and they do not benefit the host country)
-new building developments need land. Local farmers may be tempted to sell farm land, which reduces local food production.
-tourists can be narrow- minded and often prefer familiar food, so much is imported rather than produced locally
-culture clashes may occur and tourism can lead to problems with drugs and alcohol
What is extreme tourism?
Location with difficult environments where tourism has only recently occurred due to people wanting to visit somewhere with different physical challenges
What do extreme environments involve?
Dangerous landscapes often with a difficult climate, and remote places that are sparsely settled or not occupied at all. Usually have facilities for tourists to take place in adventurous activities such as rock climbing, paragliding, and white water rafting
What are extreme environments?
Natural worlds that are totally different from the ones in which they normally live. They are called wilderness areas.
Why do people enjoy taking part in adventures activities?
They involve an element of risk and people often choose such a trip for the adrenaline rush.
Name some examples of extreme environments
The White Sea - North Russia
Ukraine- Chernobyl zone of alienation (area devastated by nuclear contamination)
Jamaica- climbing waterfalls and cliff diving
Who are the target market for adventure tourism?
Often around 30 years old, unmarried and without children, have high powered jobs and a good income
Why is little investment needed to set up adventure tourists?
The usual costly expenses of building hotels and roads are irrelevant. Part of the experience is to sleep 'rough' and travel over untouched landscapes
What is stewardship?
The personal responsibility of us all for looking after things, in this case the environment. No one should damage the present or future environment
What is conservation?
The thoughtful use of resources; managing the landscape in order to protect ecosystems and cultural features
What is the difference between stewardship and conservation?
Conservation is stewardship on a more manageable scale. People feel much more involved at this level.
What examples of places can be protected?
An individual building can be conserved and protected because of its historical importance.
Habitats and landscapes in rural areas can be protected.
Careful use of non renewable resources such as oil is also a form of conservation (planned use allows them to last as long as possible)
Conservation can involve improving energy efficiency and recycling waste.
What is ecotourism?
The environmentally friendly tourism. It caters for small but growing niche market of environmentally aware tourists and is the fastest expanding tourism sector
What does ecotourism involve?
They want to experience the natural environment directly, undertaking activities such as trekking and birdwatching. They want their holiday to have as little impact on the environment as possible.
Energy should be sustainable and no waste should be generated that cannot be dealt with efficiently.
What is ecotourism accommodation and holiday like?
Ecotourism prefer small scale accommodation in lodges that may not even have electricity, rather than large hotels. They eat local food. Local people are their guides as their knowledge and experience is seen to be more valuable.
Why is the market for ecotourism limited?
Because the impact on the environment is low but due to ecotourism being small scale, the price paid by each tourist is high.