Flashcards in Geography- case study-PC- population control- China Deck (9)
How big is China's population?
Over 1.3 billion
Why did the country introduce the one child policy?
During the 1970s (when China was a relatively poor) the country was heading for famine (like the one in 1959 which caused 35 million deaths) unless severe changes were made quickly. As a result, the Chinese government has developed a very strict policy to limit population growth.
When was the one child policy announced?
What were the main rules enforced to follow the one child policy?
-Permission from the government is needed before people are allowed to marry and have children.
-Each couple must not marry until their late 20s
-Free healthcare and education is available for one-child families.
-Parents having more than one child face heavy fines.
-Family planning is available at work.
-Sterilisation after the first child or the abortion of any future pregnancies
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What would happen if the one child policy rules were broken?
-10% salary cut
-A heavy fine
-Health care for the family and education for the children would have to be paid for.
What were the positive effects of the one child policy?
-Birth rates have fallen and population growth has slowed.
-People have enough food and jobs and increased technology
-Exploitation of resources have increased standard of living for many.
What were the negative effects of the one child policy?
-Boys are more valued than girls, leading to an unbalanced population (approximately 110 males to 100 females).
-An ageing population is beginning to cause dependency problems (one child supporting two parents and four grandparents).
-Local officials and central government had power over people’s lives.
-Chinese only children can be spoiled – ‘Little Emperor’ syndrome.
How was the one child policy relaxed in the 1990's and 2000's?
-young couples who are both only children are allowed two children (doesn't apply for government works as they have to set an example)
-couples could not find out the gender of their baby because thousands of females were aborted (female infanticide)
-in rural areas couples were allowed a second child if their first was a girl. (Sons were essential to work on family land)
-China is racially mixed but over 80% of the population is hands race. Minority groups could be unsustainable under the one child policy so they were exempt.