Flashcards in Geography- case study- T- tourism- Antartica Deck (10)
How many tourists visit each year?
When did the first specifically designed crew ship make its first voyage?
Why do most visitors have to arrive by cruise ship?
There are no commercial airports
How do tourists travel around to the key locations (such as Peninsula) for short visits?
What are tourists attracted by?
Magnificent scenery e.g glaciers
Wildlife (penguins, whales, seals)
Antarctica's remoteness and extreme environment adds a sense of adventure
More than 99% of Antarctica is covered in ice
Walking, kayaking, skiing,climbing, scuba diving, helicopter rides
How does the Antarctica Treaty control tourism?
The international Association of Antarctic Tour Operators has a stick set of guidelines e.g:
-do not go within 5m of a penguin or other wildlife
-tourists must come ashore in groups of no more than 100 people at a time
-visitors must not take things away as souvenirs
-discharge of waste and disposal of rubbish by ships in Antarctic waters is not allowed
What are the positive impacts of tourism for Antarctica?
- Many tour operators contribute money to schemes to conserve Antarctica
-visitors usually become advocates for the protection of Antarctica when they return home
-tourism has conserved important sites e.g Scotts Hut from the 1910 British Antarctic Expedition
What are the negative impacts of tourism for Antarctica?
-boats tend to visit the same penguin colonies, sometimes several times a day. Disturbing the habitats
-animals do not like to be touched, if they leave as a result they may abandon eggs and young
-tourists trample slow-growing, fragile plants (mosses and lichen) and may leave litter
-the size of tour ships is increasing. An accident could result in an oil spill, which would harm wildlife.
What are the worries for the future of Antarctica?
-There is a concern that larger ships will eventually be allowed to land and the volume of tourists will be beyond sustainable limits .
-There is a concern that breeding patterns may be disrupted as the peak tourist and breeding seasons coincide
-A big worry is any development of land based tourism
-there is a danger that tourists may come to see Antarctica as a theme park rather than a fragile nature reserve