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Flashcards in Geography- Changing Urban Environments Deck (79)
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What does urbanisation mean?

A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities resulting in their growth.

1

What does Rural-to-urban migration mean?

Moving home from a rural area to settle in a town or city

2

What are the two causes of urbanisation?

Rural-urban migration and natural increase

3

How can rural-to-urban migration lead to natural increase?

The people that migrate into towns and cities are generally young and this results in relatively high levels of natural increase as the high proportion of young adults results in high level of births and the improvements in medical care means babies are more likely to survive. This high fertility rate will result in natural increase which will then contribute to urbanisation. It's a cycle

4

Name a pull factor of rural to urban migration?

Better jobs in the city
Better education opportunities
Better medical help

5

Name a push factor of rural-to-urban migration

-droughts
-lack of medical care
-Lack of job opportunities

6

What does land use mean?

The type of buildings or other features that are found in the area, e.g terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks.

7

What does function mean?

The purpose of a particular area, e.g for residential use, recreation or shopping

8

What is a CBD?

A central business district- the main shopping and service area in a city, the CBD is usually found in the middle of the city so that it is easily accessible.

9

What is the inner city?

The inner city is the area around the CBD, it is likely to be the oldest part (although more recent buildings may have changed this). Buildings are likely to be high density, terraced housing.

10

What is the outer city/suburbs?

The area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as they reach the edge of the city. Usually lower density, semi detached housing with cul de sacs and curvilinear street patterns

11

Why do new single households account for 70% of the increased demand for housing?

Due to people leaving home to rent or buy younger then previously. Marrying later, getting divorced and living longer. A third of single-person households are aged over 65

12

Why is the government target to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016?

So that house prices do not spiral out of control as a result of a shortage.

13

What is brown field site?

Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.

14

What is a greenfield site?

Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.

15

What percentage of the new houses is going to be built on brownfield sites?

60%

16

What is the Urban Development Corporations? (UDC's)

Set up in 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment.

17

What is the City Challenge?

A strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development.

18

What are the advantages of building on brownfield sites?

-easier to get planning permission as councils want to see brownfield sites used.
-sites in cities are not left derelict and empty
-utilities such as water and electricity are already provided
-roads already exist
-near to facilities in town centres, e.g shops, entertainment and places of work
-cuts commuting
-provides jobs
-improves environment
-no need to develop green filed sites
-prevents urban sprawl.

19

What are the advantages of building on greenfield sites?

-new sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare
-no restrictions of existing road network
-pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners.
-some shops and business parks on outskirts provide loa all facilities
-land cheaper on outskirts so plots can be larger
-more space for gardens

20

What does regeneration mean?

Improving an area

21

What does sustainable community mean?

Community (offering housing, employment and recreational opportunities) that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life.

22

What does quality of life mean?

How good a persons life is as measured by such things as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how happy they are with their lifestyle.

23

What is the Park-and-ride scheme?

A bus service run to key places from car parks on the edge of busy areas in order to reduce traffic flows and congestion in the city centre. Costs are low to encourage people to use the system-they are generally cheaper then fuel and car parking charges in the centre.

24

What are the five issues in towns and housing?

Housing
The inner city
Traffic
The CBD
Multicultural mix

24

What are the five issues in towns and housing?

Housing
The inner city
Traffic
The CBD
Multicultural mix

25

What happened to the cheap high rise flats built in the 1960s and 1970s in order to cater to the demand for housing in inner cities?

They proved to be unpopular and many have since been demolished.

25

What happened to the cheap high rise flats built in the 1960s and 1970s in order to cater to the demand for housing in inner cities?

They proved to be unpopular and many have since been demolished.

26

What are the three strategies to deal with the inner city issues?

Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
City challenge
Sustainable communities

26

What are the three strategies to deal with the inner city issues?

Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
City challenge
Sustainable communities

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