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Flashcards in Geography- Changing Urban Environments Deck (79):
0

What does urbanisation mean?

A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities resulting in their growth.

1

What does Rural-to-urban migration mean?

Moving home from a rural area to settle in a town or city

2

What are the two causes of urbanisation?

Rural-urban migration and natural increase

3

How can rural-to-urban migration lead to natural increase?

The people that migrate into towns and cities are generally young and this results in relatively high levels of natural increase as the high proportion of young adults results in high level of births and the improvements in medical care means babies are more likely to survive. This high fertility rate will result in natural increase which will then contribute to urbanisation. It's a cycle

4

Name a pull factor of rural to urban migration?

Better jobs in the city
Better education opportunities
Better medical help

5

Name a push factor of rural-to-urban migration

-droughts
-lack of medical care
-Lack of job opportunities

6

What does land use mean?

The type of buildings or other features that are found in the area, e.g terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks.

7

What does function mean?

The purpose of a particular area, e.g for residential use, recreation or shopping

8

What is a CBD?

A central business district- the main shopping and service area in a city, the CBD is usually found in the middle of the city so that it is easily accessible.

9

What is the inner city?

The inner city is the area around the CBD, it is likely to be the oldest part (although more recent buildings may have changed this). Buildings are likely to be high density, terraced housing.

10

What is the outer city/suburbs?

The area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as they reach the edge of the city. Usually lower density, semi detached housing with cul de sacs and curvilinear street patterns

11

Why do new single households account for 70% of the increased demand for housing?

Due to people leaving home to rent or buy younger then previously. Marrying later, getting divorced and living longer. A third of single-person households are aged over 65

12

Why is the government target to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016?

So that house prices do not spiral out of control as a result of a shortage.

13

What is brown field site?

Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.

14

What is a greenfield site?

Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.

15

What percentage of the new houses is going to be built on brownfield sites?

60%

16

What is the Urban Development Corporations? (UDC's)

Set up in 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment.

17

What is the City Challenge?

A strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development.

18

What are the advantages of building on brownfield sites?

-easier to get planning permission as councils want to see brownfield sites used.
-sites in cities are not left derelict and empty
-utilities such as water and electricity are already provided
-roads already exist
-near to facilities in town centres, e.g shops, entertainment and places of work
-cuts commuting
-provides jobs
-improves environment
-no need to develop green filed sites
-prevents urban sprawl.

19

What are the advantages of building on greenfield sites?

-new sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare
-no restrictions of existing road network
-pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners.
-some shops and business parks on outskirts provide loa all facilities
-land cheaper on outskirts so plots can be larger
-more space for gardens

20

What does regeneration mean?

Improving an area

21

What does sustainable community mean?

Community (offering housing, employment and recreational opportunities) that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life.

22

What does quality of life mean?

How good a persons life is as measured by such things as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how happy they are with their lifestyle.

23

What is the Park-and-ride scheme?

A bus service run to key places from car parks on the edge of busy areas in order to reduce traffic flows and congestion in the city centre. Costs are low to encourage people to use the system-they are generally cheaper then fuel and car parking charges in the centre.

24

What are the five issues in towns and housing?

Housing
The inner city
Traffic
The CBD
Multicultural mix

24

What are the five issues in towns and housing?

Housing
The inner city
Traffic
The CBD
Multicultural mix

25

What happened to the cheap high rise flats built in the 1960s and 1970s in order to cater to the demand for housing in inner cities?

They proved to be unpopular and many have since been demolished.

25

What happened to the cheap high rise flats built in the 1960s and 1970s in order to cater to the demand for housing in inner cities?

They proved to be unpopular and many have since been demolished.

26

What are the three strategies to deal with the inner city issues?

Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
City challenge
Sustainable communities

26

What are the three strategies to deal with the inner city issues?

Urban Development Corporations (UDCs)
City challenge
Sustainable communities

27

What is strategy 1: Urban Development Corporations?

It is a major strategy introduced in the 1980s. They were large-scale projects where major changed occurred with the help of both public and private investment.

28

Name an example of an Urban Development Corporations

London Docklands Development Corporation.

29

What is strategy 3: sustainable communities?

It allows people to live in an area where there is housing of an appropriate standard to offer reasonable quality of life with access to a job, education and health care. This initiative began in 2003 and one area affected by it is an New Islington Millennium in east Manchester.

29

What is strategy 2: the city challenge?

It was a big initiative of the 1990s. It had a holistic approach to regeneration where local authorities, private companies and the local community worked together from the start. The focus of projects varied. For example the Hulme (Manchester) City challenge partnership sought to improve the housing that had been built in the 1960s to replace the old terraces that had once stood there.

34

Why has traffic become a problem in CBDs?

The demand for greater mobility and accessibility and the fact that people have more money and enjoy the door to door system that comes with having a car has lead to increased traffic congestion. 30% of households have more than one car and 45% have one car.

35

What does increased traffic congestion cause in a CBD?

- Air pollution from vehicles
- Noise from heavy vehicles
- Buildings discoloured
- Impact on health ~ respiratory conditions, asthma
- Unslightly

36

What methods are encouraged to reduce traffic congestion?

Encouraging cycling
Making public transport more efficient and attractive (park and ride scheme)
Congestion charging

37

Why did people stop shopping at CBDs?

Out of town shopping centres (e.g white rose) offered more pleasant shopping experiences with ample parking.
Online shopping became increasingly easy and popular (avoids going out and bad weather).

38

What changed to improve CBDs?

Cleaning up the streets
Pedestrianising roads to decrease cars and therefore decrease air pollution and lead concentrations
Beautification (e.g hanging baskets)
Street furniture (benches)
Street performers

39

What is segregation?

Occurs when people of a particular ethnic group choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separate from other groups.

40

Why might people choose to cluster in the same area as their fellow immigrants?

-support from others (people feel safe and secure when they can associate with others with the same background- protection from racial abuse)
-a familiar culture (there is a comfort from being with people who have similar ideas and beliefs and speak the same language)
-specialist facilities (for example Sikhs can worship in a gurdwara and Muslims in a mosque, familiar foodstuff will be available in shops)
-safety in numbers (people have a stronger voice if they are heard as a group)
-employment factors (immigrant groups tend to do low paid jobs or have a high rate of employment. They can afford cheaper housing in certain parts of the city, usually inner city areas)

45

What does self help mean?

Sometimes known as assisted self help (ASH), this is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitation, e.t.c

46

What is the site and service scheme?

Occurs where land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitation, electricity and basic task layout are supplied before any building by residents begins. Land is identified for the scheme.

47

What are the main materials used to make houses in favelas?

Corrugated iron, pieces of board e.t.c

47

What is industrialisation?

A process usually associated with the development of an economy where an increasing proportion of people work in industry

48

Describe a house In a favela

Overcrowded
Not provided with basic infrastructure (toilets)
No clean water sources
Low hygiene (place of filth and disease)
Few open spaces or greenery
Houses densely packed together
Crime is a major issue

48

What is disposal of waste?

Safely getting rid of unwanted items such as solid waste

49

What are strategies to improve living conditions and who supports them?

Local authorities support the improvements:
Replacing temporary materials with bricks and concrete
Catching rainwater in a tank on the roof
Obtaining an electricity supply
Working together with residents to remove rubbish
Local authority offer grants, cheap loans and materials to encourage improvement
Standpipes are likely to be provided for access to water supply and sanitation
Begin building health centres and schools.
Legal ownership of the land is granted to encourage improvements.

49

Name an example of an industrial accident caused by industrialisation?

Indian city of Bhopal on the 3rd December 1984 poisonous gas escaped firm a chemical plant.
Killed 3,000 people, 50,000 suffered permanent disability
The worlds worst industrial accident

50

Example of a squatter settlement improved by the site and service scheme

In Cairo, new settlements such as 10th of Ramadan city were built to reduce pressure on the city. High- rise blocks of flats were built, together with shops, a primary school and a mosque. Industries were also planned to provide jobs for the new inhabitants.

50

Name an example of an industrial accident caused by industrialisation?

Indian city of Bhopal on the 3rd December 1984 poisonous gas escaped firm a chemical plant.
Killed 3,000 people, 50,000 suffered permanent disability
The worlds worst industrial accident
The waste could not be disposed of so eventually was packed up and sent to the USA

51

How can over population lead to water pollution and what problems does this cause?

In places such as India the river agaves contains untreated sewage, cremated remains, chemicals and disease and then people are drinking from the river and washing there laundry in it.

52

How can overpopulation lead to pollution?

Construction booms lead to massive amounts of carbon dioxide emissions no other damaging gases which cause pollution and global warming

53

How have countries suffering from rapid urbanisation tried to reduce the problem?

There have been guidelines to indicate what is allowed and what is not.
Limits must be monitored and ensured.

54

How does waste disposal help Shanty dwellers make a living?

Children and adults scavenge in landfills to extract materials to either reuse or resell.
Waste is used as a fertiliser in surrounding rural areas

55

What is landfill?

A means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and lining it before filling it with rubbish.

56

What is recycling?

Collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminium cans, plastic containers and mobile phones instead of throwing them away

57

What is air pollution?

Putting harmful substances into the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide.

58

What are the transnational corporations?

Companies that spread their operations are the world to try to reduce costs

59

What is water pollution?

Putting poisonous substances into water courses such as sewage, industrial effluent and harmful chemicals.

60

How is the amount of air pollution (sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) being controlled in industrial cities?

-encouraging people to switch to cleaner, alternative sources of energy.
-the introduction of carbon tax
-using low sulphur coal
-companies including transnational corporations (TNCs) must be monitored to ensure that emissions of bad gases as reduced.
-strategies to reduce transport (eg in Mexico City even cars one day, odd cars another day) and introducing congestion charges.

61

How much did the world bank grant in a loan to improving the Haungpu and Suzhou river in 2002?

$200 million

62

What is a sustainable city?

An urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric are able to stand the test of time.

63

Name some characteristics of a sustainable city:

-clean environment
-sound economy
-plenty of jobs
-strong sense of community
-people involved in decision making
-use public transport
-manage waste efficiently
-create green spaces

64

What is a green belt?

Land on the edge of the built up area, where restrictions are placed on building to prevent the expansion of towns and cities and to protect the natural environment

65

What is urban sprawl?

The spreading of urban areas into the surrounding rural/rural-urban fringe areas

66

How can the natural environment be conserved?

-restricting development on the edge of a town or city
-green belts exist around many large towns in England

67

What are millionaire cities

This is a city with more than 1 million people

68

What are mega cities?

This is a city with more than 10 million inhabitants

69

What did the UN announce in 2006?

That for the first time the worlds population was 50% and 50% rural and urban dwellers (now there is more urban)

70

What is counter urbanisation?

movement is to rural areas to live in villages

71

How did the agricultural revolution lead to urban growth in developed countries?

The agricultural revolution meant that fewer labourers were needed on farms so they migrated to the city.

72

How did the industrial revolution in the 19th century lead to urbanisation?

There were enough jobs for everyone moving to towns and cities, e.g in factories

73

Name four advantages of developing cities being big (economy, people's quality of life, people's incomes, opportunities for improvement)

Big cities attract investments from transnational companies (TNCs), secondary education may only be available in big cities, variety of job opportunities increases, jobs in informal sector may lead to people developing more skills and can lead to better employment in the future.

74

What is a rural-urban fringe?

Where the built up areas reaches the country side

75

What is morphology?

The term used to describe the internal structure of a city

76

Describe the land uses of the inner core, outer core and frame of a CBD

In larger CBDs there is segregation of different types of land-uses/ businesses forming quarters:
Inner Core: retailing
Outer Core: offices, entertainment and smaller shops
Frame: service industries, wholesalers, car parks and other features

77

What percentage of the UKs carbon emissions come from homes?

25% of UK`s carbon emissions come from homes.
 


78

How can houses get closer to being carbon zero?

This can be reduced by:
Improving insulation
Installing double glazing
Encouraging people to reduce energy use

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